UCT QUESTION AND ANSWER FOR SCIENCE AND TECH

1.   Which of the following statements related to the applications of semiconductors is/are correct?

1.   Photodiodes are used for detecting optical signal in electronics devices like smoke detectors, remote controls television.SCIENCE

2.   Photovoltaic devices convert electrical energy into light.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 only                       (b) 2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2            (d) Neither 1 nor 2

2.   Which of the following terminologies associated with space is/are correct?

1.   Interstellar space is the term given to the space between stars within the galaxy.

2.   Blue Moon denotes the second full Moon in a single calendar month.

3.   Nebula is an explosion of a massive supergiant star.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  2 only                       (d) None of the above

3.   Which of the following organisation provides global radio spectrum and satellite orbits and develop the technical standards that ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect?

(a)  ICANN

(b)  Regional Commonwealth in the Field of Communications

(c)  International Telecommunication Union

(d)  International Amateur Radio Union

4.   Which of the following statements related to  the Kuiper belt is/are correct?

1.   The Kuiper Belt is an area of the outer solar system that is estimated to stretch across 20 astronomical units (AU) of space.

2.   It is home to the known dwarf planets Pluto, Haumea and Makemake.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 only                       (b) 2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2            (d) Neither 1 nor 2

5.   Which of the following is/are the advantages of LEDs over conventional incandescent lamps?

1.   LEDs require low operational voltage and less power.

2.   LEDs have longer life than conventional incandescent lamps.

3.   In LEDs the bandwidth of emitted light is exactly monochromatic in nature hence provide better illumination.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 only                       (d) All of the above

6.   Consider the following diseases:

1.   Measles                    2.  Small  Pox

3.   Flu                            4.  Valley fever

      Which of the above diseases are air-borne diseases?

(a)  1 and 3 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  All of the above       (d) None of the above

7.   Which of the following statements related to the Earth’s orbit is/are correctly matched?

1.   Satellites in the medium earth orbit are mainly used for navigation.

2.   Satellites in the low earth orbit are mainly used for satellite phone.

3.   Satellites in geostationary earth orbit are used for Direct-to-Home Television.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

8.   Which of the following is/are the applications of Satellite Meteorology?

1.   Drought Monitoring

2.   Forest Fire Monitoring

3.   Sea Surface Temperature Monitoring

4.   Fog and Haze Monitoring

5.   Study of Geology

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1, 2 and 3 only         (b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c)  1, 2, 3 and 4 only     (d) All of the above

9.   Which of the following products are the outcomes of biotechnological processes?

1.   Golden Rice

2.   Bt Cotton

3.   Red Blood Corpuscles

4.   Oil zapper

      Choose the correct product/s using the codes given below.

(a)  1 and 2 only

(b)  1, 2 and 3 only

(c)  1, 2 and 4 only

(d)  All of the above

10. Consider the following statements related to the Gaganyaan programme:

1.   The Gaganyaan programme is an indigenous mission that would take Indian astronauts to space.

2.   The spacecraft will be placed in a medium earth orbit.

3.   ISRO had launched the Human Space Flight Centre to complete the mission.

      Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 1 only

(c)  1 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

11. Government is planning to set up National Medical Devices Promotion  Council in which of the following ministry?

(a)  Ministry of Commerce and Industry

(a)  Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

(b)  Ministry of Science & Tech.

(d)  PM Office

12. Consider the following statements with reference to the Reverse Osmosis (RO) technology:

1.   It uses semi-permeable membrane to remove larger particles of drinking water.

2.   It is capable of removing 100% of, all forms of the dissolved ions (salt) in water.

3.   It is effective in treating brackish, surface and groundwater.

4.   It is used in pharmaceutical industries.

      Which of the above statement are correct?

(a)  1, 2 and 3 only         (b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c)  1, 3 and 4 only         (d) All of the above

13. ISRO’s eco-friendly green solid propellant is based on:

(a)  Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as fuel and Ammonium Di-Nitramide (ADN) as oxidizer.

(b)  Liquid Oxygen as fuel and Hydrogen Peroxide as oxidizer.

(c)  Liquid Oxygen as fuel and Liquid Hydrogen as oxidizer.

(d)  Liquid Flourine as fuel and Liquid Oxygen as oxidizer.

14. Recently the Spicejet flight, featuring a latest generation Q400 aircraft has been powered by biofuel technology. Which of the following is/are the benefits of it?

1.   Biojet fuel is greenhouse gas neutral and carbon neutral.

2.   The biojet fuel reduces sulfur oxides (SOx) emissions.

3.   It is expected to provide indigenous jet fuel supply security and reduced maintenance cost for the airline operators.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 only                       (d) All of the above

15. Which of the following energy is derived from the sun?

1.   Biomass                   2.  Fossil fuel

3.   Nuclear energy        4.  Geo-thermal energy

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1, 2 and 3 only         (b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c)  1, 2 and 4 only         (d) 1 and 4 only

16. Which of the following statement related to propulsion system is correct?

(a)  The air breathing rocket engines use the surrounding medium of air for the support of their oxidiser.

(b)  Once the liquid fuel is ignited, the resulting thrust cannot be regulated or turned off.

(c)  Solid propellants have high specific impulse.

(d)  Storage, handling and transport of solid fuels are comparatively difficult.

17. Consider the following statements about National Internet Exchange of India:

1.   NIXI was set up for peering of ISPs among themselves for the purpose of routing the domestic traffic within the country.

2.   It is the national nodal agency for responding to computer security incidents in the nation.

      Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)  1 only                       (b) 2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2            (d) Neither 1 nor 2

18. Which of the following terms related to nuclear energy is/are correct?

1.   Fissile material: Material capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission.

2.   Fission products: These are the nuclei formed by the fission of heavy elements which are radioactive in nature.

3.   Ionising radiation: Radioactivity that is created by bombarding a substance with neutrons in a reactor or with charged particles produced by particle accelerators.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 only                       (d) All of the above

19. Other than resistance to pests, what are the prospects for which genetically engineered plants have been created?

1.   To enable them to withstand drought.

2.   To increase the nutritive value of the
produce.

3.   To enable them to grow and do photosynthesis in spaceships and space stations.

4.   To increase their shelf life.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only

(b)  3 and 4 only

(c)  1, 2 and 4 only

(d)  1, 2, 3 and 4

20. Which of the following is/are the applications of the nanotechnology in environment?

1.   Cleaning up oil spills as nanoparticles provides high surface area for the reaction.

2.   Producing solar cells that generate electricity at a competitive cost.

3.   Cleaning up organic chemicals polluting groundwater.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

21. Which of the following statements related to the Fast breeder reactor is/are correct?

1.   Liquid sodium is used as the coolant and heat-transfer medium in the  reactor.

2.   Fast neutrons are readily captured by an isotope of U238, which then becomes Plu-239.

3.   A breeder reactor creates 30% more fuel than it consumes.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

22. Consider the following statements with respect to the Cruise Missile:

1.   It is an unmanned self-propellant guided vehicle that sustains flight through aerodynamic lift.

2.   Cruise missiles have longer ranges in comparison to ballistic missiles.

3.   These missiles fly at low altitudes using the jet engine technology.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  2 only                       (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

23. Control rods in the nuclear reactors are mainly formed of:

1.   Boron

2.   Cadmium

3.   Graphite

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  2  only                      (d) All of the above

24. On which of the following principles does stealth technology works?

1.   Radar absorbing materials capable of absorbing electromagnetic waves are coated onto the surface of the aircraft.

2.   It uses sharply angled flat surfaces or special curved surfaces at irregular angles, which reduces reflection of radio waves.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 only                       (b) 2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2            (d) Neither 1 nor 2

25. Consider the following statements about Wi-Fi and Li-Fi:

1.   Wi-Fi uses radio waves to transmit internet through sea water.

2.   Li-Fi uses light from LED bulbs to transmit data through sea water.

      Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)  1 only                       (b) 2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2            (d) Neither 1 nor 2

26. Consider the following statements regarding ‘White Space’:

1.   White space is the unused spectrum between two TV channels.

2.   It helps in spreading internet access to unconnected areas.

3.   Project Loon is a network of stratospheric balloons designed to use white space technology.

      Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)  1 and 2 only

(b)  2 and 3 only

(c)  1 only

(d)  All of the above

27. The telescopes are located in remote places because of the presence of:

1. Driest environment on the planet.

2. Stable weather patterns.

3. Low light pollution

      Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 3 only                        (b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only              (d) All of the above

28.    Consider the following statements related to roughage:

1.   Dietary fibres are known as roughage.

2.   Dairy and meat are the main sources of roughage.

3.   Roughage does not provide any nutrient to our body.

      Which of the above statements are correct?

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 1 and 3 only

(c)  2 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

29. Consider the following statements related to Asexual reproduction:

1.   Spores are specialized cells which can differentiate and grow into a new organism.

2.   Vegetative reproduction is naturally grown as part of an organism’s life cycle and designed for separation from the organism.

      Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)  1 only                       (b) 2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2            (d) Neither 1 nor 2

30.    Consider the following statements with respect to human skeleton

1.   Bones and cartilage form the skeleton of the human body.

2.   Skeleton helps in blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation.

3.   Skeleton gives frame and shape to the body and helps in movement.

4.   Skeleton protects the inner organs.

      Which of the above statements are correct?

(a)  1, 2 and 3 only         (b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c)  1, 3 and 4 only         (d) All of the above

31.    Consider the following statements related to light:

1.   Opaque objects do not allow light to pass through them.

2.   Translucent objects allow light to pass through them however, partially.

3.   Shadows are formed when a translucent object comes in the path of light.

      Which of the above statements are correct?

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

32. A reaction in which heat is given out along with the product is known as:

(a)  Decomposition Reaction

(b)  Exothermic Reaction

(c)  Endothermic Reaction

(d)  Combination Reaction

33. Consider the following statements about antibiotics:

1.   Antibiotics are produced from bacteria as well as fungi.

2.   They either kill bacteria or keep them from reproducing. 

3.   Antibiotics are not effective against common cold or influenza.

      Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)  1 only                       (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

34. Consider the following statements about DNA & RNA:

1.   DNA is unstable under alkaline conditions while RNA is stable.

2.   DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded.

3.   DNA is susceptible to UV damage while RNA is relatively resistant to UV damage.

      Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)  1 and 2 only

(b)  2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 3 only

(d)  All of the above

35. When a nucleus in an atom undergoes radioactive decay then the electronic energy levels of the atoms:

(a)  change for ‘alpha’ radioactivity but not for the others.

(b)  changes for ‘beta’ radioactivity but not for the others.

(c)  change for ‘gamma’ radioactivity but not for the others.

(d)  change for ‘alpha & beta’ radioactivity but not for ‘gamma’ radioactivity.

36. Consider the following statements related to the forces:

1.   The electric force acts between all moving charged particles.

2.   The magnetic force acts between all charged particles, whether moving or not.

3.   The gravitational force is a force that attracts any two objects with mass. 

      Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  3 only                       (d) All of the above

37. Which of the following technologies and associated scientific principles is/are correct?

1.   Hydroelectric power: Conversion of kinetic energy of water to electric energy.

2.   Rocket propulsion: Bernoulli’s principle in fluid dynamics.

3.   Electric generator: Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 1 and 3 only

(c)  1 only                       (d) All of the above

38. Which of the following is/are the applications of weak nuclear force?

1.   It allows protons to turn into neutrons and vice versa through beta decay. 

2.   It determine the age of the organic materials from carbon isotope abundances.

3.   They are used for producing of the electric energy .

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  All of the above        (d) None of the above

39. Which of the following statement related to human blood is correct?

(a)  Globulins are a protein which is essential for clotting of blood.

(b)  Red blood Cells neither have a nucleus nor mitochondria.

(c)  The average life span of a red cell is about one month.

(d)  None of the above.

40. Which of the following is/are the examples of chemical change?

1.   Change in colour due to rusting.

2.   Change in shape due to melting of ice to water.

3.   Formation of precipitate.

      Select the correct answer from the code given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 1 and 3 only

(c)  2 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

41. Consider the following statements related to the States of matter:

1.   Mohs scale is used to indicate the degree of hardness in solids.

2.   Liquids have a definite volume and possess surface tension.

3.   Gases occupy less space than the liquids or solids from which they form. 

      Which of the above statements are correct?

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 3 only             (d) All of the above

42. Which of the following statements related to Cutaneous respiration is/are correct?

1.   It is a form of respiration in which gas exchange occurs across the skin and gills.

2.   The skin of these animals is always wet as animal loses a lot of water in this form of respiration.

3.   Earthworm, eel, bats use their outer surfaces as gas exchange surfaces. 

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 1 and 3 only

(c)  2 only                       (d) All of the above

43. Electric bulbs are not filled with air but are filled with argon or nitrogen gas because:

(a)  These gases do not react with the hot tungsten filament.

(b)  It helps in prolonging the life of the filament of the bulb.

(c)  Both ‘a’ and ‘b’

(d)  These gases do not react with hot glass.

44. Which of the following is the role of villi in human body?

(a)  It broke down the food into small or simpler molecules.

(b)  It helps to kill the germs which might have entered in to the system through food.

(c)  It helps in increasing the surface area for absorption of the digested food.

(d)  None of the above

45. Consider the following statements related to the gravitational force:

1.   Gravitational force is a strong force.

2.  The force of gravity decreases with altitude.

3.   The force varies from the poles to the equator

      Which of the above statements are correct?

(a)  1 and 2 only

(b)  2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 3 only

(d)  All of the above

46. Which of the following is/are the examples of osmosis?

1.   Root system water intake in plants.

2.   Contact lenses

3.   Desalination of water

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 only

(b)  2 and 3 only

(c)  1 and 2 only

(d)  All of the above

47. Which of the following statement related to cell wall is correct?

(a)  Bacteria do not have cell wall.

(b)  Animals have cell wall but do not have vacuole.

(c)  Cell wall prevents the cell membrane from bursting in a hypotonic medium.

(d)  The cell walls of algae and bacteria contain chitin, which makes them strong and tough. 

48. Consider the following statements regarding Genetically Modified Organisms:

1.   It has made crops more tolerant to abiotic stresses like drought, cold, etc

2.   It has reduced reliance on chemical pesticides.

3.   It has helped to reduce post harvest losses.

      Which of the above statements are correct?

(a)  1 and 2 only

(b)  2 and 3 only

(c)  All of the above

(d)  None of the above

49. Consider the following statements related to diseases:

1.   Typhoid is caused by protozoan.

2.   Pneumonia is caused by pathogens.

3.   Common cold is caused by bacteria.

4.   Malaria is caused by virus.

      Which of the above statements are correct?

(a)  1, 2 and 3 only         (b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c)  All of the above       (d) None of the above

50. Which of the following is/are the benefits of genome sequencing?

1.   It helps in improving livestock production

2.   It helps in improving crop production and disease resistance.

3.   It helps in cloning.

      Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)  1 and 2 only             (b) 2 only

(c)        2 and 3 only    (d)        All of the above

ANSWER AND EXPLANATIONS

S1.   Ans: A

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: Photodiodes used for detecting optical signal (photodetectors). These diodes are used in consumer electronics devices like smoke detectors, compact disc players, and televisions and remote controls in VCRs.

Statement 2 is incorrect: Light emitting diodes (LED) which convert electrical energy into light.

Photovoltaic devices convert optical radiation into electricity.

2.   Ans: A

Exp: Supernova is an explosion of a massive supergiant star.

3.   Ans: C

Exp. International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.It is the oldest among all the 15 specialized agencies of UN. ITU was formed in 1865, in Paris, at the International Telegraph Convention; this makes it one of the oldest intergovernmental organizations in the world. The International Radiotelegraph Union was unofficially established at first International Radiotelegraph Convention in 1906. Both were merged into the International Telecommunication Union in 1932.ITU became a United Nations specialized agency in 1947. 

4.   Ans: C

Exp: The Kuiper Belt (sometimes referred to as the Kuiper-Edgeworth Belt) is an area of the outer solar system that is estimated to stretch across 20 astronomical units (AU) of space. It contains small solar system bodies made mostly of ices. The ices are frozen volatiles (gases) such as methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water. It also is home to the known dwarf planets Pluto, Haumea and Makemake.

5.   Ans: A

Exp: LEDs have the following advantages over conventional incandescent low power lamps: (i) Low operational voltage and less power.

(ii)  Fast action and no warm-up time required.

(iii) The bandwidth of emitted light is 100 Å to 500 Å or in other words it is nearly (but not exactly) monochromatic.

(iv) Long life and ruggedness.

(v)  Fast on-off switching capability.

6.   Ans: C

Exp: An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air. Such diseases include many of considerable importance both in human and veterinary medicine.

The relevant pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, or fungi, and they may be spread through breathing, talking, coughing, sneezing, raising of dust, spraying of liquids, toilet flushing or any activities which generates aerosol particles or droplets.

Human airborne diseases do not include conditions caused by air pollution such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), gases and any airborne particles, though their study and prevention may help inform the science of airborne disease transmission.

There are three main types of organisms that can cause airborne diseases, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi.

Examples: Anthrax, Chickenpox, Influenza, Measles, Small pox, TB, Valley Fever, etc.

7.   Ans: D

Exp: Types of Orbits

·    Low Earth Orbits

A low Earth orbit is normally at an altitude of less than 1000 km and could be as low as 160 km above the Earth. Satellites in this circular orbit travel at a speed of around 7.8 km per second. At this speed, a satellite takes approximately 90 minutes to circle the Earth.

In general, these orbits are used for remote sensing, military purposes and for human spaceflight as they offer close proximity to the Earth’s surface for imaging and the short orbital periods allow for rapid revisits. The International Space Station is in low Earth orbit.

·    Medium Earth Orbits

This orbit takes place at an altitude of around 1000 km and is particularly suited for constellations of satellites mainly used for telecommunications. A satellite in this orbit travels at approximately 7.3 km per second.

·    Geostationary Earth Orbits

As satellites in geostationary orbit continuously cover a large portion of the Earth, this makes it an ideal orbit for telecommunications or for monitoring continent-wide weather patterns and environmental conditions. It also decreases costs as ground stations do not need to track the satellite. A constellation of three equally spaced satellites can provide full coverage of the Earth, except for the polar regions.

8.         Ans: C

Exp: Satellite Meteorology refers to the study of the earth›s atmosphere and oceans using data obtained from remote sensing devices flown onboard satellites orbiting the earth.

There are a number of applications of satellite meteorology. Some of them are described below:

•    Weather Forecasting

•    Drought Monitoring

•    Forest Fire Monitoring

•    Sea Surface Temperature Monitoring

•    Fog and Haze Monitoring

Study of geology is the application of remote sensing.

9.   Ans: C

Exp: Products are:

•    Golden rice is the biotechnological product, where beta-carotene containing Vitamin-A is integrated into normal rice.

•    Bt Cotton is the product of integrating Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton crop.

•    Red Blood Corpuscles is nothing but normal RBCs/ red blood cells, they are natural products.

•    Oil-zapper is the biotechnologically developed cocktail of different strains of bacteria, to clear oil spills.

10. Ans: C

Exp: India’s maiden manned space mission ‘Gaganyaan’ is set for December 2021 launch. The objective of the mission is to carry a three-member crew to low earth orbit (not medium earth orbit) and return them safely to a predefined destination on earth.

ISRO had launched the Human Space Flight Centre to take care of all the things related to the manned space programme.

11. Ans: A

Exp: To give a fillip to the medical device sector, which is a sunrise sector, Minister of Commerce and Industry announced setting up of a National Medical Devices Promotion Council under the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) in the Ministry of Commerce & Industry. Commerce Minister was speaking at a programme on the occasion of 4th WHO Global Forum on Medical Devices, at Andhra Pradesh Medtech Zone. The Council will be headed by Secretary, DIPP. Apart from the concerned departments of Government of India, it will also have representatives from health care industry and quality control institutions.

National Medical Devices Promotion Council will have the following objectives and activities:

i.    Act as a facilitating and promotion & developmental body for the Indian MDI.

ii.   Hold periodic seminars, workshops and all related networking activities to garner views of the industry and understand best global practices in the sector and  deliberate on various parameters for inclusion in the industrial and trade policies in   medical devices.

iii.  Identify redundant processes and render technical assistance to the agencies and departments concerned to simplify the approval processes involved in medical device industry promotion & development. 

iv.  Enable entry of emerging interventions and support certifications for manufacturers to reach levels of global trade norms and lead India to an export driven market in the sector.

v.   Support dissemination and documentation of international norms and standards for medical devices, by capturing the best practices in the global market and facilitate domestic manufacturers to rise to international level of understanding of regulatory and non regulatory needs of the industry.

vi.  Drive a robust  and dynamic Preferential Market Access (PMA) policy, by identifying the strengths of the Indian manufacturers and discouraging unfair trade practices in imports; while ensuring pro-active monitoring of public procurement notices across India to ensure compliance with PMA guidelines of DIPP and DoP.

vii. Undertake validation of Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) and other such entities within MDI sector, which add value to the industry strength in manufacturing to gain foothold for new entrants.

viii. Make recommendations to government based on industry feedback and global practices on policy and process interventions to strengthen the medical technology sector, including trade interventions for related markets.

12. Ans: C

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: It uses semi-permeable membrane to remove larger particles of drinking water.

Statement 2 is incorrect: In is capable of removing but not 100@ of dissolved ions (salt) in water

Statement 3 is correct: It is effective in treating brackish, surface and groundwater.

Statement 4 is correct: It is used in pharmaceutical industries.

13. Ans: A

Exp: ISRO is developing green propellants for use in future rocket & satellite propulsion systems. ISRO has made a beginning by developing an eco-friendly solid propellant based on Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as fuel and Ammonium Di-Nitramide (ADN) as oxidizer at the laboratory level, which will eliminate the emission of chlorinated exhaust products from rocket motors.

14. Ans: D

Exp: The use of bio jet fuel, apart from reducing greenhouse gas emissions by about 15 percent and sulfur oxides (SOx) emissions by over 99 percent, is expected to provide indigenous jet fuel supply security, possible cost savings as feedstock availability at farm level scales up, superior engine performance and reduced maintenance cost for the airline operators.

15. Ans: C

Exp: Nuclear energy is not derived from the sun. Nuclear energy comes from the energy released when atoms are split apart and some mass is converted to energy.

16. Ans: A

Exp: Once the solid fuel is ignited, the resulting thrust cannot be regulated or turned off.  Solid propellants have high specific impulse. Storage, handling and transport of liquid fuels are comparatively difficult.

17. Ans: A

Exp: About National Internet Exchange of India

·    NIXI is a not for profit Organization under section 25 of the Companies Act 1956, and was registered on 19 th July, 2003.

·    NIXI was set up for peering of ISPs among themselves for the purpose of routing the domestic traffic within the country, instead of taking it all the way to US/Abroad, thereby resulting in better quality of service (reduced latency) and reduced bandwidth charges for ISPs by saving on International Bandwidth.

·    NIXI is managed and operated on a Neutral basis, in line with the best practices for such initiatives globally.

·    CERT-In is the national nodal agency for responding to computer security incidents.

18. Ans: A

Induced radioactivity: Radioactivity that is created by bombarding a substance with neutrons in a reactor or with charged particles produced by particle accelerators.

Ionizing radiation: Radiation that is capable of producing ions either directly or indirectly.

19. Ans: C

Exp: Genetically Engineered Plants

·    GE plants have drought resistance capacity

·    GE crops have a higher nutritious value

·    GE crops are specifically designed to grow them in space, but simple varieties are tried on a experimental basis

·    GE crops are designed to have a longer shelf life

20. Ans: D

21.Ans: D

Exp: Conventional nuclear reactors use uranium-235 as their fuel. However, uranium-235 makes up less than 1% of naturally occurring uranium. Most uranium occurs as the isotope uranium-238. The only problem is that uranium-238 can’t be used in conventional nuclear reactors. It doesn’t undergo fission like uranium-235.

The Breeder Reactor was developed to use uranium-238.  It creates 30% more fuel than it consumes

When a plutonium nucleus absorbs one such free neutron, it splits into two fission fragments. This fissioning releases heat as well as neutrons, which in turn split other plutonium nuclei, freeing still more neutrons. As this process is repeated again and again, it becomes a self-sustaining chain reaction, yielding a steady source of energy, chiefly in the form of heat, which is transported from the reactor core by a liquid sodium coolant to a system of heat exchangers. This system utilizes the heat to produce steam for a turbine that drives an electric generator. 

22. Ans: C

Exp: About Cruise Missile

·    A cruise missile locates its target, or has a preset target, and navigates there.

·    Cruise missiles generally consist of a guidance system, payload, and aircraft propulsion system, housed in an airframe with small wings and empennage for flight control.

·    Cruise missiles that can be launched from various platforms whether from Land, Sea (Submarine, Ship) or Air

·    Cruise missiles characterized by having different forms of guidance whether inertial or beyond visual range satellite GPS guidance.

·    They are known specifically for the low-level flight which is staying relatively close to the surface of the earth to avoid detection from anti-missile systems and are designed to carry large payloads with high precision. The key is that the missile is guided entirely to the target under its own power.

Ballistic missiles have longer range as compared to cruise missile.

23. Ans: A

Exp: In a nuclear reactor, the chain reaction is constantly managed by means of control rods which are made from a material capable of absorbing neutrons. These rods are mobile in the reactor core: they can be dropped down to reduce the fission rate or pulled up to either maintain or increase the rate. In the case of an incident, the rods are dropped into the fuel which almost immediately stops the chain reaction.

Graphite is used as moderator.

24. Ans: C

25. Ans: B

Exp: Wireless Fidelity uses radio waves to transmit data, but it can’t transmit through saline waters Light Fidelity uses visible light from LED bulbs and it can pass through saline waters.

26. Ans: A

Exp: About White Space

·    White Space refers to the unused broadcasting frequencies in the wireless spectrum. Television networks leave gaps between channels for buffering purposes, and this space in the wireless spectrum is similar to what is used for 4G and so it can be used to deliver widespread broadband internet. Microsoft India is ready with a plan to provide free last-mile internet connectivity across the country. It proposes to use the “white space” – the unused spectrum between two TV channels – to provide free connectivity to large sections of the Indian population.

·    Project Loon balloons travel approximately 20 km above the Earth’s surface in the stratosphere. Winds in the stratosphere are stratified, and each layer of wind varies in speed and direction. Project Loon uses software algorithms to determine where its balloons need to go, then moves each one into a layer of wind blowing in the right direction. By moving with the wind, the balloons can be arranged to form one large communications network. It is not related to white space technology.

27. Ans: D

The remote area is chosen to avoid all kinds of contamination from dust and moisture. The South Pole has the driest environment on the planet. It also has very stable weather patterns and winter temperatures averaging -58˚C. With its clear sky and an effective altitude of about 3,000 metres, the South Pole is the closest a ground-based telescope can get to being in space.

28. Ans: B

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: Dietary fibres are known as roughage.

Statement 2 is incorrect: Roughage is mainly provided by plant products in our foods. Whole grains and pulses, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables are main sources of roughage.

Statement 3 is correct: Roughage does not provide any nutrient to our body, but is an essential component of our food and adds to its bulk. This helps our body get rid of undigested food.

29. Ans: D

Exp: Statement 1 is incorrect: Spores are structures naturally grown as part of an organism’s life cycle and designed for separation from the organism and dispersal via a medium such as air or water.

Statement 2 is incorrect: Vegetative reproduction:  Many plants have evolved specialized genetic features that allow them to reproduce without the aid of seeds or spores. Examples include the prostrate aerial stems of strawberries, the bulbs of tulips, the tubers of potatoes, the shoots of dandelions, and the keikis of orchids. This form of specialization is most common in environments with seasonally harsh conditions; it allows plants to survive and thrive in situations where the traditional seeding process is subject to frequent interruption. It is known as vegetative reproduction.

30. Ans: D

Exp: The adult human skeletal system consists of 206 bones, as well as a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. The skeletal system performs vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to survive.

Animals with internal skeletons made of bone, called vertebrates, are actually the minority on Earth. As much as 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates, meaning they do not have internal skeletons or backbones.

31. Ans: A

Exp: Statement 3 is incorrect: Shadows are formed when an opaque object comes in the path of light and not translucent objects.

Light transmission capacity varies from object to object. Transparent objects allow all the light to pass through them, translucent ones allow partial light to pass, whereas opaque ones allow no light to pass through.

32. Ans: B

Exp: Types of Reactions

In a combination reaction two or more substances combine to form a new single substance.

Decomposition reactions are opposite to combination reactions. In a decomposition reaction, a single substance decomposes to give two or more substances.

Reactions in which heat is given out along with the products are called exothermic reactions.

Reactions in which energy is absorbed are known as endothermic reactions.

When an element displaces another element from its compound, a displacement reaction occurs.

Two different atoms or groups of atoms (ions) are exchanged in double displacement reactions.

33. Ans: D

Exp. Antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria and is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections. Antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections. They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess anti-protozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics Antibiotics are produced from bacteria as well as fungi.

34. Ans: B

Exp. Statement 1 is incorrect: DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose, while RNA contains the sugar ribose. The only difference between ribose and deoxyribose is that ribose has one more -OH group than deoxyribose, which has -H attached to the second carbon in the ring.

Statement 2 is correct: DNA is a double-stranded molecule while RNA is a single stranded molecule.

DNA is stable under alkaline conditions while RNA is not stable.

DNA and RNA perform different functions in humans. DNA is responsible for storing and transferring genetic information while RNA directly codes for amino acids and as acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes to make proteins.

DNA and RNA base pairing is slightly different since DNA uses the bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine; RNA uses adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine. Uracil differs from thymine in that it lacks a methyl group on its ring.

35. Ans: D

36. Ans: c

Exp: Statement 1 and 2 are incorrect: The electric force acts between all charged particles, whether or not they’re moving. The magnetic force acts between moving charged particles. This means that every charged particle gives off an electric field, whether or not it’s moving. Moving charged particles (like those in electric current) give off magnetic fields.

Statement 3 is correct: The gravitational force is a force that attracts any two objects with mass.  The gravitational force is directly proportional to the product of the mass of the massive objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. This is known as Newton›s law of gravitation.

37. Ans: B

Exp: Rocket propulsion is based on Newton’s third law of motion.

38. Ans: A

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: The weak nuclear forces cause the nucleus decay, They are attractive forces that work over a short distance and They affect all particles not just the protons and the neutrons and they enable the advanced medical diagnosis and treatment .

Statement 2 is correct: The weak nuclear forces are used to get the radiant elements and the radiations which are used in medicine and they are used in the scientific researches, They determine the age of the organic materials from carbon isotope abundances .

Statement 3 is incorrect: Strong Nuclear Force is used in producing of the electric energy.

39. Ans: B

Exp:  Fibrinogen is a protein which is essential for clotting of blood, another protein globulins aid in the defense mechanisms of the body. 8 Red Blood Cells:– are the most numerous of the blood cells, they neither have a nucleus nor mitochondria, RBC are a reddish coloured protein containing iron.

Human red blood cells are produced through a process named erythropoiesis, developing from committed stem cells to mature red blood cellsin about 7 days. When matured, in a healthy individual these cells live in blood circulation for about 100 to 120 days (and 80 to 90 days in a full term infant).

40. Ans: B

Change in shape due to melting of ice to water is a physical change not chemical change.

A chemical change occurs when the substance’s composition is changed. When bonds are broken and new ones are formed a chemical change occurs. The following are indicators of chemical changes:

·      Change in Temperature

·      Change in Color

·      Noticeable Odor (after reaction has begun)

·      Formation of a Precipitate

·      Formation of Bubbles

41. Ans: A

Exp: Solids: They have a definite shape, distinct boundaries and fixed volumes, that is, have negligible compressibility. Solids have a tendency to maintain their shape when subjected to outside force. Solids may break under force but it is difficult to change their shape, so they are rigid.

Mohs scale is used to indicate the degree of hardness.

Liquids: They have no fixed shape but have a fixed volume. They take up the shape of the container in which they are kept. Liquids flow and change shape, so they are not rigid but can be called fluid. The rate of diffusion of liquids is higher than that of solids. This is due to the fact that in the liquid state, particles move freely and have greater space between each other as compared to particles in the solid state.

Gases: They have three characteristic properties: (1) they are easy to compress, (2) they expand to fill their containers, and (3) they occupy far more space than the liquids or solids from which they form.

42. Ans: C

Exp: Statement 1 is incorrect: It is a form of respiration in which gas exchange occurs across the skin or outer integument of an organism rather than gills or lungs.

Statement 2 is correct: The main disadvantage of breathing through the skin is that the animal loses a lot of water in this way. The skin of these animals is always wet. To stop their bodies from drying out they must always live where the air is humid.

Statement 3 is incorrect: Flatworms and annelids use their outer surfaces as gas exchange surfaces. Earthworms have a series of thin-walled blood vessels known as capillaries. Gas exchange occurs at capillaries located throughout the body as well as those in the respiratory surface.

Amphibians use their skin as a respiratory surface. Frogs eliminate carbon dioxide 2.5 times as fast through their skin as they do through their lungs. Eels (a fish) obtain 60% of their oxygen through their skin. Humans exchange only 1% of their carbon dioxide through their skin. Constraints of water loss dictate that terrestrial animals must develop more efficient lungs.

43. Ans: C

Exp: If air is filled in an electric bulb, then the extremely hot tungsten filament would burn up quickly in the oxygen of air. So, the electric bulb is filled with a chemically unreactive gas like argon or nitrogen. These gases do not react with the hot tungsten filament and hence prolong the life of the filament of the bulb.

44. Ans: C

Exp: Villi are finger like projections in the small intestine. They help to increase the surface area for absorption of the digested food. Villi are richly supplied with blood vessel which help to absorb digested food in to the blood stream.

45. Ans: B

Exp: Gravitational force is a weak force unless large masses are involved. It is the weakest force but has infinite range. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.

The force of gravity decreases with altitude. Hence statement 2 is correct.

It also varies on the surface of the earth, decreasing from poles to the equator. Hence statement is also correct.

46. Ans: C

Exp: In case of Osmosis, particles flow from hypertonic solution to hypotonic solution. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules.

Examples of osmosis: Root system water intake in plants, contact lenses, cell membrame, etc. Desalination of water is reverse osmosis process.

47. Ans: C

Exp: A cell wall is an outer layer surrounding certain cells that is outside of the cell membrane. All cells have cell membranes, but generally only plants, fungi, algae, most bacteria, and archaea have cells with cell walls. Animal cells do not have cell wall. The cell wall provides strength and structural support to the cell, and can control to some extent what types and concentrations of molecules enter and leave the cell. The materials that make up the cell wall differ depending on the type of organism. The cell wall has evolved many different times among different groups of organisms.

The cell wall has a few different functions. It is flexible, but provides strength to the cell, which helps protect the cell against physical damage. It also gives the cell its shape and allows the organism to maintain a certain shape overall. The cell wall can also provide protection from pathogens such as bacteria that are trying to invade the cell. The structure of the cell wall allows many small molecules to pass through it, but not larger molecules that could harm the cell.

The cell walls of fungi contain chitin, which is a glucose derivative that is similar in structure to cellulose. Layers of chitin are very tough

48. Ans: C

Exp: Genetically Modified Organisms have been useful in many ways. It has;

·      Made crops more tolerant to abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salt, heat). Reduced reliance on chemical pesticides (pest-resistant crops).

·      Helped to reduce post harvest losses.

·      Increased efficiency of mineral usage by plants (this prevents early exhaustion of fertility of soil).

·      Enhanced nutritional value of food, e.g., golden rice, i.e., Vitamin ‘A’ enriched rice.

·      In addition to these uses, GM has been used to create tailor-made plants to supply alternative resources to industries, in the form of starches, fuels and pharmaceuticals.

49. Ans: D

Exp: Statement 1 is incorrect: Salmonella typhi is a pathogenic bacterium which causes typhoid fever in human beings. These pathogens generally enter the small intestine through food and water contaminated with them and migrate to other organs through blood. Sustained high fever (39° to 40°C), weakness, stomach pain, constipation, headache and loss of appetite are some of the common symptoms of this disease. Intestinal perforation and death may occur in severe cases.

Statement 2 is incorrect: Bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are responsible for the disease pneumonia in humans which infects the alveoli (air filled sacs) of the lungs. As a result of the infection, the alveoli get filled with fluid leading to severe problems in respiration. The symptoms of pneumonia include fever, chills, cough and headache.

Statement 3 is incorrect: Many viruses also cause diseases in human beings. Rhino viruses represent one such group of viruses which cause one of the most infectious human ailments — the common cold. They infect the nose and respiratory passage but not the lungs. The common cold is characterised by nasal congestion and discharge, sore throat, hoarseness, cough, headache, tiredness, etc., which usually last for 3-7 days.

Statement 4 is incorrect: Some of the human diseases are caused by protozoans too. Malaria, a disease man has been fighting since many years is caused by a protozoan. Plasmodium, a tiny protozoan is responsible for this disease. Different species of Plasmodium (P. vivax, P. malaria and P. falciparum) are responsible for different types of malaria. Of these, malignant malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is the most serious one and can even be fatal.

50. Ans: A

Exp: Genome sequencing is not used for cloning.