UCT Question and Answer for History

1.   Consider the following statements about Harappan civilisation:

1.   Harappan society seems to have been divided into two sections viz.an elite class associated with citadel and rest of the society occupying the lower town.

2.   Doorways and windows mostly opened out in the main street.

3.   There is no system of strait drainage at Kalibangan.

4.   The lower town was not walled.

Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?

(a) 1 and 3     (b)  2 and 4

(c)  1, 2 and 4 (d)  2, 3 and 4

2.   Consider the following statements about Gandhara school of Art:

1.   The male figures are shown with musculature, drapery with sharp flowing folds, wavy curled hair and sharp features.

2.   Marble was used extensively.

3.   Both Shakas and Kushan patronized Gandhara art.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 1 only

(c)  1 and 3

(d) All of the above

3.   Which of the following factors were responsible for the rise of mixed castes?

1.   Emergence of specialised occupational groups.

2.   Assimilation of new tribes into Arya Society

3.   Violation of varna endogamous rules.

4.   Violation of gotra exogamous rules.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

(a)  1, 2 and 3   (b) 2, 3 and 4

(c)  1, 3 and 4   (d) All of the above

4.   “Buddha can be born only as a Brahmin or a Kshatriya and not in a low family like of a Chandala or of a basket maker or of a chariot maker or a Pukkasa”. This statement is taken from which of the following?

(a) Lalita Vistara

(b) Milind panho

(c)  Suttapitaka

(d) Abhidhammapitaka

5.   With reference to Gupta Period, consider the following statements:

1.   Women were absolutely denied access to independent livelihood source.

2.   First record of widow immolation (Sati) appeared during Gupta Age.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        (b)  2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2 (d)          Neither 1 nor 2

6.   Which of the following is considered as the earliest example of the Panchayatan style of temple architecture?

(a) Mahabodhi Temple

(b) Dashavatara Temple

(c)  Lingaraj Temple

(d) Modhera Sun Temple

7.   Which among the following is also considered as ‘Second Buddha’?

(a) Maitreya   (b)  Avalokiteshwara

(c)  Tathagat   (d)  Guru Rinponche

8.   Consider the following Mudras related to Lord Buddha:

Mudra             Indication

1.   Vitarka Mudra            : Intellectual debate

2.   Varada Mudra            : Charity and compassion

3.   Uttarabodhi                : Supreme Mudra Enlightenment

4.   Karana Mudra            : Warding off evil

Which of the pairs given above are matched correctly?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b)  2 and 3

(c)  1, 3 and 4 (d)  All of the above

9.   Which of the following pairs of sun temple and their location is/are correctly matched?

1.   Martand Sun Temple –  Jammu and Kashmir

2.   Katarmal Surya Temple – Himachal Pradesh

3.   Surya Pahar Temple – Uttarakhand

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only        (b)  2 only

(c)  2 and 3     (d)  None of the above

10. Consider the following statement (s) about Bhakti Movement:

1.   The leader of the Bhakti movement focusing on the Lord as Rama was Ramananda.

2.   Sri Ramanuja Acharya was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        (b)  2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2 (d)          Neither 1 nor 2

11. Dharamchakraparvartana Mudra is associated with:

(a) Gandhara school of Art

(b) Gupta sculpture

(c)  Palas

(d) None of the above

12. Consider the following statements about Nagara style architecture:

1.   It is popular in the southern India.

2.   Shikhara gradually inclines inwards in a convex curve.

3.   The garbhagriha is always located directly under the tallest tower.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        (b)  2 and 3

(c)  1 and 2     (d)  All of the above

13. Consider the following Bhakti saint:

1.   Guru Nanak

2.   Dadu Dayal

3.   Kabir

4.   Adi Shankaracharya

5.   Tukaram

Which of the saints given above were contemporaries?

(a) 1, 2 and 4 (b)  2, 3 and 5

(c)  1 and 3     (d)  1, 2 and 3

14. Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi recognized ‘Charkha’ as a symbol of:

(a) Swadeshi

(b) Mobilizing mass in the freedom struggle.

(c)  All round progress of Society

(d) Society that would not glorify machines and technology and make people self reliant.

15. Consider the following statements about Mauryans:

1.   They used punch marked coins for trading

2.   Mauryan Pillars were constructed in pieces by the mason

3.   They introduced burnt bricks and ring well in North Eastern region for the first time

Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?

(a) 1 and 2     (b)  2 only

(c)  2 and 3     (d)  All of the above

16. Which among the following Sangam Text deals with poetics and grammar?

(a) Ettutokai  (b)  Kilkannaku

(c)  Tholkappiyam (d)       None of the above

17. Which of the following pairs related to Indus Valley Civilization sites and their findings is/are correctly matched?

1.   Harappa – Granary outside the fort

2.   Fire Altar – Rangpur

3.   Bangle factory – Lothal

4.   Ink pot – Chanhudaro

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b)  2, 3 and 4

(c)  1 and 4     (d)  None of the above

18. Arjuna’s penance and Descent of the Ganga are associated with which of the following dynastry?

(a) Chalukya   (b)  Pallavas

(c)  Pandyas    (d)  Rastrakutas

19. The Moderates had faith in the British justice and goodwill. Which of the following were the demands of Moderates?

1.   Expansion and reform of legislative councils.

2.   Greater opportunities for Indians in higher posts by holding the ICS examination simultaneously in England and in India.

3.   Abolition of salt tax and sugar duty.

4.   They burned foreign-made goods and demanded for Swadeshi industrialization.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2     (b)  1, 2 and 3

(c)  1, 3 and 4 (d)  1, 2 and 4

20. What is common among Shyamji Krishna Verma, Sohan Singh Bhakna and Har Dayal?

(a) They all started revolutionary movement in India.

(b) They all started revolutionary movements outside India in different nations.

(c)  They are involved in killing of Kingsford.

(d) None of the above.

21. Which of the following administrative changes were brought by Lord Cornwallis?

1.   He introduced the system for the separation of the three branches of service, namely commercial, judicial and revenue.

2.   The collectors were deprived of their judicial powers and their work became merely of the collection of revenue.

3.   He established a system of circles headed by a daroga.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2     (b)  2 Only

(c)  1 and 3     (d)  All of the above

22. Which of the following statements related to freedom struggle is/are correct?

1.   The Butler Committee was formed to clarify the relationship between the paramount power and the Princes of Princely States.

2.   Rajagopalachari Formula was associated with the formation of the Interim Government at the centre.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only        (b)  2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2 (d)          Neither 1 nor 2

23. Consider the following statements about Indo-Islamic architecture:

1.   Thick sloping walls were built for the first time under Tughlaqs.

2.   Lodis were the first to construct structure on grafted platform like double dome.

3.   Akbar was the first to introduce the concept of the planned charbagh in South Asia.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        (b)  1 and 2

(c)  2 and 3     (d)  All of the above

24. Consider the following statements about GOI Act of 1935:

1.   For the first time direct elections were introduced and women were allowed to vote.

2.   Sindh was separated from Bombay, Orissa was separated from Bihar, and Burma was separated from India.

3.   The System of Dyarchy was dropped at the provincial level but introduced in the central government level.

4.   Introduced the Reserve Bank of India to look after the cash flow and printing processes.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b)  3 and 4

(c)  2, 3 and 4 (d)  All of the above

25. Which of the following writings have shaped Gandhi’s ideology?

1.   Leo Tolstoy book ‘The Kingdom of God is Within You’.

2.   John Ruskin’s seminal work ‘Unto This Last’.

3.   Henry David Thoreau work ‘Christianity and Patriotism’.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 and 3

(c)  1 and 3

(d) All of the above

26. Which of the following movements were reformists in character?

(a) Deoband and Aligarh Movement

(b) Arya Samaj and Prarthana Samaj

(c)  Brahmo Samaj and Aligarh Movement

(d) Prarthana Samaj and Deoband Movement

27. Consider the following statements related to cave architecture in India:

1.   Karle Cave – associated with Buddhism.

2.   Ajanta Cave – associated with both Buddhism and Jainism.

3.   Badami Cave – associated with Hindu diety.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 and 3

(c)  1 and 3

(d) All of the above

28. Which of the following statements regarding the Nath Panthis is/are true?

1.   It was confined to Western India.

2.   It challenged the superiority of the Brahmins.

3.   It advocated Hindu-Muslim unity.

Select the answer from the codes given below

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 1 and 3

(c)  2 and 3

(d) 2 only

29. The Iron Man of India-Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel is equated with:

(a) Kaiser William

(b) Bismarck

(c)  King Leopold

(d) Garibaldi

30. Arrange the following events chronologically:

1.   Cripp’s Mission

2.   Cabinet Mission

3.   Quit India Movement

4.   Individual Satyagraha

5.   RIN Mutiny

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

(a) 1 – 4 – 2 – 3 – 5

(b) 4 – 1 – 3 – 5 – 2

(c)  4 – 1 – 3 – 2 – 5

(d) 4 – 1 – 2 – 3 – 5

31. Which of the following pairs related to Folk Dances and their region is/are correctly matched?

1.   Kalbelia—Rajasthan

2.   Gotipua—Manipur

3.   Paika—Odisha

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 1 only

(c)  1 and 3

(d) All of the above

32. Consider the following statements:

1.   Indian Councils Act 1919 introduced Diarchy at centre.

2.   Government of India Act 1935 introduced the Provincial Autonomy

3.   A system of dual government of British India by the British Government and the Company was set up under Regulating Act of 1773.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2     (b)  2 only

(c)  2 and 3     (d)  All of the above

33. Consider the following statements related to Poona Pact:

1.   Poona pact was signed between Madan Mohan Malviya & Dr. Ambedkar.

2.   It was signed in response to fast unto death by Gandhi ji after declaration of McDonald Award.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

(a) 1 only        (b)  2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2 (d)          Neither 1 nor 2

34. Consider the following statements about Arya Samaj:

1.   The Slogan ‘Swaraj’ was first introduced by Arya Samaj.

2.   Extremists derived their thoughts from the teachings of Dayanand Saraswati and Vivekanand.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only        (b)  2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2 (d)          Neither 1 nor 2

35. Consider the following statements about  Khilafat  Committee:

1.   Khilafat movement was started to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate and restore the Caliph’s position.

2.   Shankaracharya  of Puri extended the support of Hindus to Khilafat Committee.

3.   Gandhi ji was made president of Khilafat Committee.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 3     (b)  1 and 2

(c)  3 only        (d)  All of the above

36. Consider the following philosophies:-

1.   Ajivika

2.   Vaisheshika

3.   Samkhya

Which of the following philosophies focus on materialistic view of life?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 and 3

(c)  1 and 3

(d) All of the above

37. Consider the following statements about 1937 elections:

1.   Muslim League won a less than a quarter of the seats in the North West Frontier Province.

2.   Hindu Communal Parties won ten percent of seats in Bombay province.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

38. Which of the following statements about Morley—Minto reforms is/are correct?

1.   The membership of the Central and Provincial Legislative Councils were enlarged.

2.   It introduced communal electorates as a part of these reforms.

3.   It promised to establish a representative government.

4.   It withdrew the partition of Bengal.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 4

(b) 1 and 2

(c)  1, 2 and 3

(d) All of the above

39. Which of the following temples are examples of Vesara style of Temples?

1.   Durga temple, Aihole

2.   Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal

3.   Somnathpuram temple

4.   Gangaikondacholapuram temple

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b)  1, 3 and 4

(c)  2 and 4     (d)  All of the above

40. Which event pushed Gandhi ji into the arena of freedom struggle?

(a) Death of B.G.Tilak

(b) Rowlatt Act

(c)  Partition of Bengal

(d) Outbreak of World War-I

41. Consider the following pairs (folk music traditions):

Music          State of Origin

1.   Sohar             Nagaland

2.   Dollu Kunita    Assam

3.   Villa Pattu     Maharashtra

4.   Chhakri          Manipur

Which of the following pairs is/are correct matched?

(a) 1, 2 and 3

(b) 2, 3 and 4

(c)  All of the above

(d) None of the above

42. Consider the following statements about Governor Generals:-

1.   Lord William Bentick was last Governor General of Bengal.

2.   C.Rajagpalachari was only Indian Governor General.

3.   Lord Mountbatten was first Governor General of independent India.

Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 1 only

(c)  2 and 3

(d) None of the above

43.What does wheel symbol symbolizes in Buddhism?

(a) It represents the Buddha’s teachings, and the eight spokes of the wheel symbolize the Noble Eightfold Path.

(b) It symbolizes the feet or footprints of the Buddha and is often used to mark the beginning of texts.

(c)  It symbolizesprotection, peace, and the dispelling of fear.

(d) It symbolizes charity, compassion and boon-granting.

44. The ‘August offer’ of 1940 sought to conciliate the Congress by guaranteeing:

(a) The setting up of a representative Indian body to frame a newconstitution.

(b) The Government’s assurance to protect the political rights ofminorities.

(c)  That there would be no partitionofIndia.

(d) That separate electorates would not be provided for the depressedclasses.

45. Which of the following statements were the reasons for decline of Mughal Empire?

1.   In later Mughals the real power passed into the hands of nobles from many factions, usually on the basis of their commonorigin.

2.   During the reign of Mughals there were the revolts of the Marathas, the Sikhs, andJats.

3.   After the death of Aurangzeb the Mughal Empire began to disintegrate due to widespread.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2     (b)  1 and 3

(c)  2 and 3     (d)  1, 2 and 3

46. Consider the following statements about Queen Victoria proclamation:

1.   Queen Victoria’s proclamation was read out by Governor General Canning at Durbar held at Delhi in Nov 1858.

2.   The proclamation claimed intention of extending British conquest inIndia.

3.   The Proclamation promised to pay due regard to the ancient right to usages and customs of the people and follow a policy of religious tolerance.

Which of the above statements are correct?

(a) 1 and 2     (b)  1 and 3

(c)  2 and 3     (d)  1, 2 and 3

47. Which of the following were the impacts of foreign contacts with India during Ancient times?

1.   Development of Feudatory organisation

2.   Strengthening the idea of divine origin of kingship

3.   Introduction of Mathura and Amravati art forms.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 Only

(b) 1 and 2

(c)  2 and 3

(d) None

48. Which of the following statements are true with regard to the Sangam Age?

1.   A group of learned scholars produced valuable Tamil literature under the patronage of Pandyas-Cheras-Cholas.

2.   Sati system was prevailing in the Sangam age.

3.   The Sangam social structure was more equal and not rested on traditional caste systems and occupations.


1.   1 and 2     2. 2 Only

3.   2 and 3     4. All

49. Which of the following were the impacts of britishers on the society?

1.   The practice of Sati was banned by Lord Bentinck.

2.   A law was passed to sanctioned inter-caste and inter-communal marriages by Lord Dalhousie

3.   Sharda Act was passed for preventing child infanticide.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 Only       (b)  1 and 2

(c)  1 and 3     (d)  All

50. Consider the following statements about Asokan Edicts:

1.   Asoka was the first Indian king to speak directly to the people through his inscription.

2.   The inscriptions were composed in Prakrit languages.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 Only       (b)  2 Only

(c)   Both    (d)  None


History MCQs final

  1. Ans: B

Exp: The settlement is divided into two sections, one smaller but higher and the other much larger but lower. Archaeologists designate these as the Citadel and the Lower Town respectively. The Citadel owes its height to the fact that buildings were constructed on mud brick platforms. It was walled, which meant that it was physically separated from the Lower Town. The Lower Town was also walled.

There is no system of strait drainage at Kalibangan. Doorways and windows rarely opened out into the main street, but faced side lanes.

  1. Ans: B

Exp:  The salient features are:

  1. Gandhara school of art there was dominance of lively statues of Gautama Buddha. His existence was shown only by symbols such as foot-prints, the Bodhi-tree, a vacant seat or the umbrella.
  2. In this school a great care was taken to show the physical features, muscles and moustaches, etc. of a figure in as natural a way as was possible.
  3. A great importance was attached to refineness and polish in the Gandhara School of Art.
  4. The technique and forms applied were Greek in nature but the ideas, inspirations and subjects were all Indians.
  5. The Gandhara art was mostly used to make statues and images of Lord Buddha. But from a study of certain specimens of this school that are now placed in Lahore, Calcutta and Peshawar museums, we can say that sometimes this art was used to depict certain scenes from Buddha’s life and also to make statues of the Kushan rulers.
  6. Most of the specimens of this school were executed in stone but the discovery of a large number of images in stucco, cement, terracotta and clay, show that along with stone, sometimes stucco, cement, terracotta and clay were also used for making statues, images and sculptures concerning the Buddhist faith
  7. The chief centre of the Gandharva School of Art was no doubt Gandhara itself but the discovery of Gandhara specimens from Afghanistan and Taxila goes to prove that this Indo-Greek art flourished over a vast region.
  8. The main material: Metal such as the gold used in the Kanishka reliquary from Shahji ki Dheri. Stone wherever used is usually blue or grey schist and slate. Stucco, especially busts of Greek and Roman deities and princes. Interestingly these were painted, with red colour being used for the lips and black for the eyes and hair.
  9. Ans: A

Exp: Increasing pride of birth, characteristic of feudal society, and the accompanying self-sufficient village economy, which prevented both spatial and occupational mobility, gave rise to thousands of castes in India during the early medieval Period.

Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships. Violation of varna endogamous rules occurred. Gotra exogamous rules were not violated.

  1. Ans: A

Exp. Lalitavistara Sūtra is a Mahayana Buddhist sutra that tells the story of Gautama Buddha from the time of his descent from Tushita until his first sermon in the Deer Park near Varanasi. The term Lalitavistara has been translated «The Play in Full» or «Extensive Play,» referring to the Mahayana view that the Buddha’s last incarnation was a “display” or “performance” given for the benefit of the beings in this world.

  1. Ans: B

Exp: In general, women of the Gupta Empire were viewed as inferior to the men. However, they were still respected and were viewed as equals to the female gods such as Saraswati.

    Women could be educated in the arts (primarily in music and poetry). They were not, however, allowed to be educated in religious practices or read any sacred texts.

    Over the duration of the Gupta Empire, there was a decline of the status of women, primarily because of the rise of a new, non-agricultural middle class.

    Women were not allowed to own property, and anything that she did own could be considered the property of her husband and father.

    At any given point in her life, a woman was always subject to the will of a man.

    Women were married at 6 or 7 years old to ensure virginity and chastity. Since she lived with her husband, he could raise her to be the kind of wife he wanted.

    There were exceptions to this social system. Some women were even a part of government.

  1. Ans: B

Exp. Hindu temple is a Panchayatana one when the main shrine is surrounded by four subsidiary shrines. The origin of the name are the Sanskrit words Pancha(five) et ayatana (containing).

Examples of Panchayatana temples

  • Kandariya Mahadeva Temple in Khajuraho
  • Brahmeswara Temple in Bhubaneswar
  • Jagdish Temple in Udaipur
  • Lakshmana Temple in Khajuraho
  • Lingaraja Temple in Bhubaneswar

Generally, the Hindu temple are built along a west-east axis. So the four subsidiary shrines are at the north-east, south-east, south-west

Dashavatara Temple is an early 6th century Vishnu Hindu temple located at Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh in the Betwa Rivervalley in north-central India. It has a simple, one cell square plan and is one of the earliest Hindu stone temples still surviving today Built in the Gupta Period, the Dashavatara Temple at Deogarh shows the ornate Gupta style architecture.

  1. Ans: D

Exp. Padmasambhava also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist master. Although there was a historical Padmasambhava, little is known of him apart from helping the construction of the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet at Samye, at the behest of Trisong Detsen. A number of legends have grown around Padmasambhava’s life and deeds, and he is widely venerated as a “second Buddha” by adherents of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, the Himalayan states of India.

  1. Ans: D

Exp. In Vitarka mudra, the circle formed by the index finger and thumb symbolizes the flow of information and energy. This mudra is most often associated with the Buddha, representing the transmission of his wisdom and used when explaining his teachings.

Varadamudra is a mudra, and it indicates a gesture by the hand and symbolizes dispensing of boons.

Uttarabodhi mudra is a yogic hand gesture of enlightenment.

Karana mudra is a yogic hand gesture that helps to dispel negativity, anxiety, fear and depression as well as enhance feelings of happiness.

  1. Ans: A

Exp. Martand Sun Temple  is a Kashmiri Hindu temple dedicated to Surya and built during the 8th century CE. Martand is another Sanskrit name for the Hindu Sun-god. The temple is located five miles from Anantnag in Jammu and Kashmir. Martand Sun Temple was built by the third ruler of the Karkota Dynasty, Lalitaditya Muktapida, in the 8th century CE.

Katarmal Surya Temple is situated inside the the thick deodars forest of Kumaon hills near Almora. Surya temple of Katarmal is an monument of national importance and noted for its magnificent carved pillars and wooden doors.

Surya Pahar is an ancient sun worship center and the complex has several rock-cut Shivalingas,sculpture of twelve-armed Vishnu and remains of the Ganesha and Hari Hara. The Sun Temple is located near Goalpara town and one of the least known archaeological site in Assam.

  1. Ans: C

Exp: An important landmark in the cultural history of medieval India was the silent revolution in society brought about by a galaxy of socio-religious reformers, a revolution known as the Bhakti Movement. This movement was responsible for many rites and rituals associated with the worship of God by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs of Indian subcontinent. For example, Kirtan at a Hindu Temple, Qawaali at a Dargah (by Muslims), and singing of Gurbani at a Gurdwara are all derived from the Bhakti movement of medieval India (800-1700). The leader of this Hindu revivalist movement was Shankaracharya, a great thinker and a distinguished philosopher. And this movement was propounded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Namadeva, Tukaram, Jayadeva. The movement’s major achievement was its abolition of idol worship.

The leader of the bhakti movement focusing on the Lord as Rama was Ramananda.

Sri Ramanuja Acharya was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. Ramananda brought to North India what Ramanuja did in South India. He raised his voice against the increasing formalism of the orthodox cult and founded a new school of Vaishnavism based on the gospel of love and devotion. His most outstanding contribution is the abolition of distinctions of caste among his followers.

  1. Ans: B

12.Ans. B

Exp. Important features of Nagara style temple which is prevalent in North India are:-

  1. Sikhara above sanctum.
  2. Curvilinear centred over the sanctum, also straight-edged pyramidal.
  3. Sacred pools, fewer pillared mandapas in temple grounds (separate dharmashala), prakara walls rare (e.g. Odisha after 14th century), single or multiple entrances into temple.
  4. In elevation, Shikhara gradually inclines inwards in a convex curve.
  5. Ans: C

Exp. Guru Nanak  (29 November 1469 – 10 October 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak,

Kabir (1440-1518) was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings, according to some scholars, influenced Hinduism’s Bhakti movement.

Dadu Dayal (1544–1603) was a sant from Gujarat, India. “Dadu” means brother, and “Dayal” means “the compassionate one”.

He was reputedly found by an affluent business man floating on the river Sabarmati. He later moved to Naraina (city), near Jaipur Rajasthan, where he gathered around himself a group of followers, forming a sect that became known as the Dadupanth.

Tukaram,   was a 17th-century Hindu poet and sant of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra. He was part of the egalitarian, personalized Varkari devotionalism tradition. Tukaram is best known for his devotional poetry called  Abhanga and community-oriented worship with spiritual songs known as kirtans. His poetry was devoted to Vitthala or Vithoba, an avatar of Hindu god Vishnu.

Adi Shankara was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta He is credited with unifying and establishing the main currents of thought in Hinduism.

  1. Ans: D

Exp. Charkha could provide the poor with supplemented income and make them self reliant.

  1. Ans: B

Exp. Mauryans used punch marked coins to trade.Pillars were made of single piece of buff colored sandstone. They introduced burnt bricks and ring well,above all rise of town in North Eastern region for the first time.

  1. Ans: C

Exp. Tholkāppiyam is a work on the grammar of the Tamil languageand the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics. It is written in the form of noorpaa or short formulaic compositions and comprises three books – the Ezhuttadikaram, the Solladikaram and the Poruladikaram.

  1. Ans: C

Exp: Fire Altar –  Kalibangan and Lothal

Bangle Factory – Chanhudaro

  1. Ans: B

Exp. Descent of the Ganges is a monument at Mamallapuram, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, in the Kancheepuram,Tamil Nadu.  The legend depicted in the relief is the story of the descent of the sacred river Ganges to earth from the heavens led by Bhagiratha. The waters of the Ganges are believed to possess supernatural powers. The descent of the Ganges and Arjuna’s Penance are portrayed in stone at the Pallava heritage site.The relief is more of a canvas of Indian rock cut sculpture at its best not seen anywhere in India.It is one of the Group of Monuments at Mamallapuram that were designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1984.

  1. Ans: B

Exp: Between 1885 and 1905, the Congress leaders were moderates. The Moderates had faith in the British justice and goodwill. They were called moderates because they adopted peaceful and constitutional means to achieve their demands.

      Main Demands of Moderates

  • Expansion and reform of legislative councils.
  • Greater opportunities for Indians in higher posts by holding the ICS examination simultaneously in England and in India.
  • Separation of the judiciary from the executive.
  • More powers for the local bodies.
  • Reduction of land revenue and protection of peasants from unjust landlords.
  • Abolition of salt tax and sugar duty.
  • Reduction of spending on army.
  • Freedom of speech and expression and freedom to form associations
  1. Ans: B

Exp: Shyamji Krishnaverma had started in 1905 a centre for Indian students in London called India House.

Ghadar party in San Francisco was founded by Sohan Singh Bhakna and Har Dayal.

  1. Ans: D

Exp: Cornwallis introduced was the separation of the three branches of service, namely commercial, judicial and revenue. The collectors, the king-pins of the administrative system were deprived of their judicial powers and their work became merely the collection of revenue.

Police reforms – Each district was divided into thanas or police circles each of which was about 20 square miles. It was placed under an Indian officer called the daroga who was ably assisted by many constables. However, the police organization was not effective. In the words of Marshman, ‘the daroga enjoyed almost unlimited power of extortion and became the scourge of the country”.

  1. Ans: A

Exp: The objectives of Rajagopalachari Formula were to bridges between the Muslims League and Indian National Congress arises due to the difference of opinion on two nation theory and independence of India from British.

  1. Ans: B

Exp: Tughluqs built three main types of tombs: square, octagonal and pavilion. The last type was the simplest, consisting of a pavilion or a chhatri. The simple tombs are most likely to be those of nobles and family members of the sultans.It was constructed by Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq. . Thick sloping walls (Batter) were built for the first time under Tughlaqs.Lodis introduced duble dome structure.

Babur who first introduced to South Asia the concept of the planned charbagh. Babur who first introduced to South Asia the concept of the planned charbagh, which was pervasive throughout his ancestral homeland of Farghana and his kingdom of Kabul, when he built the first Mughal garden of South Asia in the Punjab in 1519: the Bagh-i-Safa at Kalda Kahar in the Salt Range.

  1. Ans: C

Exp: Salient features of the GOI 1935:

  1. The most important feature of the act was that it introduced a dyarchy at the central level in the government.
  2. The act mainly focused to fulfill the National Aspirations.
  3. The act gave a measure to form a federal form of government and an all India Federation.
  4. The act involved the making of a federal form of Government in India which is still prevalent in our Indian constitution by dividing the central and its units under 3 lists as- (Federal List, Provincial List, and Concurrent list)while the residuary powers were with the viceroy.
  5. There was the separation of states which lead to the creation of two new states -Sindh and Orissa.
  6. The act extended the Franchise by giving 10% voting rights to the public which was a great extension of rights to the people,
  7. The act provided for the establishment of a federal court which was done in 1937.
  8. The act abolished the Indian Council and made provision for the introduction of an advisory body in India,
  9. The act re-organized certain provinces such as separating Burma from India,
  10. To control the credit flow in the economy it leads to the establishment of the Reserve bank of India to control the currency in the country.
  11. Ans: A

Exp: Tolstoy’s ‘The Kingdom Of God Is Within You’ which made Gandhi speak of his “inner voice” and live a life of “simplicity”.

The book that had made such an immediate and profound impact on Gandhi was John Ruskin’s seminal work Unto This Last.

The focus of Ruskin’s work was on the nature of economic inequality in society which was seen to be morally wrong because it generated, in large sections of the population, deprivation and hardship. The solution, he thought, was a fairer distribution of wealth to alleviate this suffering. “ There is no wealth but life.” Ruskin wrote, and life incorporated everybody, there were no exceptions. Human life itself was the only real value in society.

  1. Ans: C
  2. Ans: C

Exp: The Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, a World Heritage Site, are 30 rock-cut cave Buddhist temples carved into the sheer vertical side of a gorge near a waterfall-fed pool located in the hills of the Sahyadri mountains.

  1. Ans: A

Exp: The movement challenged the caste system and challenged the superiority of the Brahmins. It was confined to Maharashtra and Western India.

  1. Ans: B
  2. Ans: B
  • Cripps Mission – (March 1942)
  • Cabinet Mission – (1946)
  • Quit India Movement – (August 1942)
  • Individual Satyagraha – (1940-41)
  • RIN Mutiny (Feb 1946)
  1. Ans: C

Exp. Kalbelia  is one of the most sensuous dance forms of Rajasthan, performed by a tribe of the same name They are famous for their dance which is an integral part of their culture. Both men and women in the tribe participate in this activity to celebrate joyful occasionally.

Paika akhada or paika akhara is an Odia term which roughly translates as “warrior gymnasium” or “warrior school”.In former times they served as the training schools of the peasant militia in Odisha.

The Gotipuas are boy dancers who dress up as girls. They are students of the akhadas, or gymnasia, established by Ramachandradeva in Odisha in the periphery of the temple.

  1. Ans: B

Exp: Diarchy was introduced as Provincial Level in 1919. Diarchy means a dual set of governments one is accountable another is not accountable. The provincial subjects were divided into two groups: One was reserved and another was transferred. The reserved subjects were kept with the Governor and transferred subjects were kept with the Indian Ministers. This division of subjects was basically what they meant by introducing the Diarchy.

A system of dual government of British India by the British Government and the Company was set up under Pitts India Act.

  1. Ans: D

Exp. Poona Pact was an agreement between Dr Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi was signed in 1932. The agreement was signed by Pt Madan Mohan Malviya and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and some Dalit leaders at Yerwada Central Jail in Pune, to break Mahathma Gandhi’s fast unto death.

      What were the terms of the Poona Pact?

  • Seat reservation for the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) in provincial legislature
  • The STs and SCs would form an electoral college which would elect four candidates for the general electorate
  • The representation of these classes was based on the standards of joint electorates and reserved seats
  • About 19 per cent of seats were to be reserved for these classes in legislature
  • The system of election to the panel of candidates in both, Central and Provincial Legislature should come to end in 10 years, unless it ends on mutual terms
  • The representation of the classes through reservation should continue as per clauses 1 and 4 until determined, else by mutual agreement between the communities
  • The franchise for the Central and Provincial Legislatures of these classes should be indicated in the Lothian Committee report
  • There should be a fair representation of these classes
  • In every province, the SCs and STs should be provided with sufficient educational facilities.
  1. Ans: C

Exp.  Swami Dayanand Saraswati, (12 February 1824 – 30 October 1883) founder of the Arya Samaj and a Hindu reformer, was the first Indian since Shivaji to used the word ‘swaraj’ as the ‘administration of self’ or ‘democracy’.

Extremists derived their thoughts from the teachings of Dayanand Saraswati and Vivekanand.

  1. Ans: D

Exp. The Khilafat Movement against the British for having deposed the last Caliph was at its peak. Swami Bharati Krishna Tirath Ji shared platform with the famous Ali Brothers Dr Kitchlew, Maulana Husain Ahmed of Deoband and others.

Khilafat committee held first session in Lucknow in 1919. In 1920 Delhi session is addressed by Shankaracharya of Puri and extended the support of Hindus to the Khilafat committee. Gandhiji was President of Khilafat committee.

  1. Ans: D

Exp. Nyāya literally means “rules”, “method” or “judgment”. It is also the name of one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Hinduism..This school’s most significant contributions to Indian philosophy was systematic development of the theory of logic, methodology, and its treatises on epistemology.

Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepts three of six pramanas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge. These include pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and śabda (āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).

Ajivika  is one of the nāstika or “heterodox” schools of Indian philosophy. Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, it was a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of early Buddhism and Jainism. Ājīvikas were organised renunciates who formed discrete communities.

  1. Ans: D

Exp. Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935. Elections were held in eleven provinces – Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab and Sindh.

The final results of the elections were declared in February 1937. The Indian National Congress emerged in power in eight of the provinces – the three exceptions being Bengal, Punjab, and Sindh. The All-India Muslim League failed to form the government in any province.

The Congress ministries resigned in October and November 1939, in protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow’s action of declaring India to be a belligerent in the Second World War without consulting the Indian people.

  1. Ans: B

Exp. 1909 Act is also known as Morley-Minto Reforms (Lord Morley was the then Secretary of State for India and Lord Minto was the then Viceroy of India). It was to appease the moderates.

  1. It increased the size of Central and provincial legislative councils.
  2. The number of members in the Central Legislative Council was raised from 16 to 60.
  3. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform.
  4. It retained official majority in the Central Legislative Council (majority of British officials)
  5. However, it allowed the provincial legislative councils to have non-official majority.
  6. It enlarged the deliberative functions (right to discuss and ask questions) of the legislative councils at both the levels.
  7. For example, members could move resolutions on the budget, ask supplementary questions, etc.
  8. For the first time, it provided for the association of Indians with the executive Councils of the Viceroy and Governors.
  9. Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as the law member.
  10. It introduced ‘separate electorate’, a system of communal representation for Muslims.
  11. Under this, the Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters.
  12. Thus, the Act ‘legalized communalism’ and Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of Communal Electorate.
  13. It also provided for the separate representation of presidency corporations, chambers of commerce, universities and zamindars.
  14. Ans: A

Exp: Gangaikondacholapuram temple is an example Dravida temple.

Vesara style is basically a fusion of Nagara and Dravida styles and not very defined. So it is hard to find contrasting features between these styles. You could say Nagara and Dravida styles merge into a new stylized form and the term Vesara is generally used to denote temples in a particular region (deccan) and period.

      Some basic differences are as follows:

  1. Shape of the Shikhara. Vesara Shikhara/Vimana is a smaller in height. It is a transformation of Dravidian Vimana where the height of each storey reduces as it goes up, and is rich with ornamentation. Wall projections are similar to Nagara style.
  2. Nagara shikhara accentuates the vertical and starts from the base, Dravida Vimana on the other hand has horizontal stories. Vesara is a mix of both.
  3. Vesara style in its chalukyan form has two or more entrances to the entrance mantapas whereas Nagara has entrance on one side
  4. Vesara temples have in general very rich carvings on the base, plinth, walls, pillars, ceiling and door frames.
  5. Mantapas tend to be flatter than their Nagara counterpart and have a parapet wall or decorated eave.
  6. Ans: B

Exp. The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919 , popularly known as the Rowlatt Act or Black Act, was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 10, 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World War.

Mahatma Gandhi, among other Indian leaders, was extremely critical of the Act and argued that not everyone should be punished in response to isolated political crimes. The Act angered many Indian leaders and the public, which caused the government to implement repressive measures. Gandhi and others thought that constitutional opposition to the measure was fruitless, so on April 6, a hartal was organised where Indians would suspend all business and would fast, pray and hold public meetings against the ‹Black Act› as a sign of their opposition and civil disobedience would be offered against the law. This event was known as the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

  1. Ans: D
  2. Sohar—Bihar—sung during childbirth
  3. Dollu Kunita—Karnataka—Name after Dollu-a percussion instrument and performed by the men folk of kuruba community.
  4. Villa pattu—Tamil Nadu—Religious, Conquest of good over evil
  5. Chhakri—Kashmir—Fairy tales, love stories.
  6. Ans: D

Exp. William  Bentinck served as Governor-General of India from 1828 to 1835 and last Governor General of Bengal. He has been credited for significant social and educational reforms in India including abolishing Sati, suppression of female infanticide and human sacrifices  and ending lawlessness by eliminating Thuggee along with his chief   captain, William Henry Sleeman, which had existed over 450 years. He along with Thomas Babington Macaulay introduced English as the language of instruction in India..

Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India, as India soon became a Republic in 1950. Furthermore, he was the first Indian-born governor-general, since before him the posts were held by British nationals He also served as leader of the INC, Premier of the Madras Presidency.

Mountbatten was the last Viceroy of India (1947) and the first Governor-General of independent India (1947–1948).

  1. Ans: A

Exp: The dharma wheel, or dharmachakra, is a common symbol used to represent the Buddha’s teachings. The wheel of dharma often has eight spokes to represent the Noble Eightfold Path. There are many different variations representing different teachings, but the wheel generally represents the dharma, or Buddha’s teachings.

  • Swastik symbolizes
    the feet or footprints of the Buddha and is often used to mark the beginning of texts.

  • Abhaya mudra
    symbolizes protection, peace, and the dispelling of fear.
  • The varada mudra symbolizes charity, compassion and boon-granting.
  1. Ans: A

Exp: During the course of the 2nd World War, in order to secure the cooperation of the Indians, the British Government made an announcement on 8 August 1940, which came to be known as the ‘August Offer’, which proposed –

  • Dominion status as the objective for India.
  • Expansion of viceroy’s executive council & setting up of a constituent assembly after the war consisting of Indians to
  • Decide their constitution according to their social, economic and political conceptions
  • Subject to fulfillment of the obligation of the Government regarding defence, minority rights, treaties with states & all India services
  • No future constitution to be adopted without the consent of minorities.

It was the first time; the inherent right of Indians was recognised through constitutional framing and Congress confessed for the formation of constituent assembly. The Congress rejected the August Offer.

  1. Ans: D

Exp: The Mughal Empire started facing a lot of crises towards the end of the 17th century. The following were responsible for the same:

    Aurangzeb’s Exploits in Deccan: He had caused depletion of the military and financial resources of his empire by fighting a long war in the Deccan. The efficiency of the imperial administration broke down under his successors.

    Powerful mansabdars and nobles: The later Mughal emperors found it increasingly difficult to keep a check on their powerful mansabdars.

    Peasants and zamindars: They added to the problems by rebelling in many parts of northern and western India. These were caused by the pressures of mounting taxes and the attempts by the powerful chieftains to consolidate their own positions.

    Challenges by rebellious groups: The successors of Aurangzeb failed to arrest the gradual shifting of political and economic authority into the hands of provincial governors, local chieftains and other groups.

    Plunder: The ruler of Iran, Nadir Shah sacked and plundered the city of Delhi in 1739 and took away immense amounts of wealth. A series of plundering raids by the Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali, followed. He invaded north India five times between 1748 and 1761.

    Competition amongst different noble groups: This further weakened the already dwindling empire. They were divided into two major factions: the Iranis and the Turanis. The later Mughal emperors became the puppets in the hands of either of these groups for a long time.

    Emergence of New States: When the Mughal emperors’ authority declined; the governors of large provinces, subadars and the great zamindars consolidated their authority in different parts of the subcontinent. These states can be broadly divided into three overlapping groups:

  1. a) States that were old Mughal provinces: These included Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad. Though these were extremely powerful and quite independent, the rulers did not break their ties with the Mughal emperor.
  2. b) States which had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals as watanjagirs. Rajput principalities were an example of this.
  3. c) States under the control of the Marathas, Sikhs and others like Jats. These were of differing sizes and had seized their independence from the Mughals after an armed struggle for a long time.
  4. Ans: B

Exp: About Queen Victoria Proclamation

    On November 1, 1858, Lord Canning announced Queen Victoria’s proclamation to “the Princes, Chiefs and Peoples of India,” which unveiled a new British policy of perpetual support for “native princes” and nonintervention in matters of religious belief or worship within British India.

  • The announcement reversed Lord Dalhousie’s prewar policy of political unification through princely state annexation, and princes were left free to adopt any heirs they desired so long as they all swore undying allegiance to the British crown.
  • This act abolished the company rule, abolished the Court of directors and abolished the Board of control.
  1. Ans: B

Exp: Impact of foreign contacts

    Development of new trade routes.

  • Improvement in trade and communication .
  • Strengthening the idea of divine origin of kingship.
  • Growth of Gandhar School of Art (Mathura and Amravati school were indigenous in nature).
  • Growth of astronomy, astrology, art and architecture.
  • Development of Fuedatory organisation.
  1. Ans: A

Exp: Sangam Age

    The Tamil heroic poems, popularly called the Sangam literature, constitute the-major evidence for the old Tamil literary tradition.

  • The three kingdoms – Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras, together with Satiyaputras (Satyaputra) are referred to as independent states by Ashoka in his inscriptions with which he maintained friendly relations.
  • These Sangams flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandyas.
  1. a) The first Sangam, held at then Madurai, was attended by gods and legendary sages but no literary work of this Sangam was available.
  2. a) The second Sangam was held at Kapadapuram but the all the literary works had perished except Tolkappiyam.
  3. b) The third Sangam at Madurai was founded by Mudathirumaran. It was attended by a large number of poets who produced voluminous literature but only a few had survived.
  • The kings performed Vedic Yajnas and the Brahmanas held discourses with the Jain and the Buddhist scholars. The four chief deities worshipped by them were Shiva, Vishnu, Balram and Krishna. Marugan was the local God.
  • The Sangam social structure rested on traditional caste systems and occupations. The literature speak of farmers, shepherds, hunters, fishermen, blacksmiths, weavers, carpenters, merchants, shippers and priests. The Brahmins of Sangam society were ideal priests. They acted as the chief advisor to the kings as scholars and philosophers. They also worked as puroliitas, astrologers, ascetics, judges and ambassadors.
  • The women were not equal with men in the society. Sati system was prevailing in the Sangam age.
  1. Ans: A

Exp: Some of the social legislations introduced in the 19th century are as follows-

  • William Bentinck enacted the Bengal Sati Regulation in 1829 to curb the inhuman practice of sati.
  • Female infanticide was rampant in the 19th century India. With respect to it, regulations prohibiting infanticide had been passed in 1895 and 1802. However, the efforts were seriously enforced by Bentinck and Hardings.
  • The Hindu Widows Remarriage Act was passed in 1856. It gave equality to women on the same footing as men to remarry on being widowed.
  • The Age of Consent Act was passed in 1891 which rose the marriageable age for women to 12 under Sharda Act.
  • A law passed in 1872 sanctioned inter-caste and inter-communal marriages.
  1. Ans: C

Exp: The history of Ashoka is reconstructed on the basis of his inscriptions, thirty-nine, in number, that are classified into Major Rock Edicts, Minor Rock Edicts, Separate Rock Edicts, Major Pillar Edicts, and Minor Pillar Edicts.

Ashokan inscriptions have been found in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Altogether, they appear at forty-seven places, and the total number of versions is 182 including two edicts which are considered spurious. It is significant that Ashokan inscriptions which were generally located on ancient highways, have been found at six places in Afghanistan.

Composed in Prakrit, they were written in Brahmi script in the greater part of the subcontinent. However, in the north-western part of the subcontinent they appeared in Aramaic language and Kharoshthi script, and in Afghanistan they were written in both Aramaic and Greek scripts and languages.

He was the first Indian king to speak directly to the people through his inscriptions which carry royal orders. The inscriptions throw light on Ashoka’s career, his external and domestic polices, and the extent of his empire.