UCT QUESTION AND ANSWER FOR GEOGRAPHY

1.   Consider the following statements about Earth’s water:

1. Out of total water present on Earth, the fresh water available for use is less than 1% of the total water found.

2. Out of total fresh water about 95% is in the form of polar ice caps and glaciers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)                  1 only       (b)      2 only

(c)                  Both 1 and 2        (d)      Neither 1 nor 2

2.   Consider the following statements about Salinity:

1. Mediterranean sea records high salinity due to high evaporation.

2. Salinity is very low in Black Sea due to fresh water influx by the rivers.

3. North Sea records low salinity due to its location in higher latitudes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      2 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only        (d)      None of the above

3.   Consider the following statements related to the pressure belts:

1. High pressure centre get develops to the North of the Himalayas during winter.

2. Convergence of Tropical and sub-tropical winds result in the formation of cyclones in the sub-polar region.

3. Pressure belts shift northwards and southwards with the shift of thermal equator.

Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      2 only

(c)                  3 only       (d)      None of the above

4.   Which of the following statements related to atmospheric layers is/are correct?

1. Stratosphere –
high altitude cirrus clouds are present here.

2. Troposphere –
water and dust are present in this layer so lead to cloud formation.

3. Thermosphere –
“noctilucent clouds”, sometimes forms in this layer near the North and South Poles.

4. Mesosphere -
Most meteors from space burn up in this layer.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1, 2 and 3 only    (b)      1, 2 and 4 only

(c)                  2, 3 and 4 only    (d)      2 only

5.   Which of the following process and their driving force has/have been correctly matched?

Process               Driving Force

1. Weathering   – Kinetic Energy

2. Transportation           –           Potential Energy

3. Mass Movement-
Gravitational force

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      2 only

(c)                  3 only       (d)      All of the above

6.   Consider the following statements about interior of the Earth:

1. The upper portion of mantle is called Asthenosphere which is considered as source region of Mid-oceanic ridge basalt.

2. Lower Mantle is involved in plate tectonic movement and isostatic adjustments.

3. Crust and Asthenosphere together makes up Lithosphere.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only        (d)      All of the above

7.   Consider the following statements about Continental Shelf:

1. Continental shelves are broad, gently sloping plains covered by relatively shallow water.

2. Canyons and trenches are not observed in this region.

3. Fossil fuels and metallic nodules are present in the continental shelves.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)                  1 only       (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 2 only        (d)      All of the above

8.   Which of the following pairs related to the types of mountains is/are correctly matched?

1. Block Mountains— formed due to faulting and folding

2. Volcanic Mountain— formed due to denudation of magma

3. Residual Mountain—formed due to erosion

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 3 only        (b)      2 only

(c)                  3 only       (d)      All of the above

9.   Volcanoes are usually located on which among the following  regions?

(a)                  Convergent plate boundaries

(b)                  Divergent plate boundaries

(c)                  Hot spots

(d)                  All of the above

10.      Many local winds are common around the Mediterranean Sea due to the varied topography of the region.  Which of the following is/are present in that region?

1. Sirocco wind

2. Mistral wind

3. Santa Ana winds

4. Zonda winds

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1, 2 and 3 only     (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 2 only        (d)      All of the above

11.      Consider the following statements related to hotspots:

1. The position of Hotspots on the Earth’s surface is independent of tectonic plate boundaries.

2. The oceanic volcanoes move away from the hot spot producing older islands a tolls and seamounts.

3. Mantle plume formed due to the conduction of hot rocks within the mantle.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)                  1 only       (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 2 only        (d)      None of the above

12.      According to Wegener, which of the following was the reason behind the drifting away of the continents?

1. Pole-fleeing force

2. Tectonic movement

3. Tidal force

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 2 only

(b)                  2 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only

(d)                  All of the above

13.      Which among the following is the largest temperate desert of the world?

(a)                  Magellanic Steppe

(b)                  Taklamakan Desert

(c)                  Simpson Desert

(d)                  Gibson Desert

14.      What is ‘Maunder Minimum’?

(a)                  Name of the mountain recently discovered on Jupiter by Juno Satellite.

(b)                  A cyclone recently hit Western Australia

(c)                  Period of almost no sunspots.

(d)                  None of the above

15.      Consider the following statements related to the Rural Settlements:

1. Clustered Settlements – formed due to security reasons and for better utilization of resources.

2. Semi-clustered settlements – formed due to fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.

3. Hamleted settlements – found due to social and ethnic factors.

Which of the above stated characteristic features is/are correct?

(a)                  1 only       (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only        (d)      All of the above

16.      Which of the following statement related to concept of Singularity (universe) is correct?

(a)                  It is a point in which all physical laws are indistinguishable from one another, where space and time are no longer interrelated realities.

(b)                  This theory has been predicted by the Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity and Chandrasekhar Limit.

(c)                  Both ‘a’ and ‘b’

(d)                  None of the above

17.      With reference to agriculture practice around the world 5 O’ clock farmers refers to:

(a)                  Farmers engaged in secondary occupation as well.

(b)                  Farmers practicing shifting cultivation in South Asia.

(c)                  Farmers with land holding less than on hectares.

(d)                  None of the above

18.      Match the followings landforms :-

Landform           Geomorphic Agent

1. Cirque        Glacial

2. Moraines   Rivers

3. Sink hole   Ground water

4. Inselberg   Wind

Which among the following pair is/are matched correctly?

(a)                  1, 3 and 4 only

(b)                  2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 4 only

(d)                  All of the above

19.      Which of the following statements define the significance of tides?

1. It helps in navigation.

2. It helps in delta formation and increases soil fertility.

3. It helps in removing polluted water from river estuaries.

4. It helps in generation of electrical power.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1, 2 and 3 only

(b)                  2, 3 and 4 only

(c)                  1, 3 and 4 only

(d)                  All of the above

20.      Which of the following best describes the method of lithification?

(a)                  Formation of soil from the parent rocks.

(b)                  Formation of rocks through compaction of fragments via denudation and transportation.

(c)                  Chemical metamorphism of rocks.

(d)                  Solidification of Igneous rocks.

21.      Which of the following statement related to placer deposits is correct?

(a)                  Placer deposits contain minerals, which are not corroded by water.

(b)                  Placer deposits have low specific gravity are chemically resistant to weathering.

(c)                  Examples of Placer deposits are uranium, zircon and magnetite.

(d)                  All of the above.

22.      Which of the following different soil forming process have been correctly matched?

1. Gleization: The process involves the accumulation of sodium ions on the clay.

2. Podzolisation: The process occur due to poor drainage condition (lack of oxygen) and where waterlogged conditions prevail.

3. Illuviation: The process of deposition of soil materials in the lower layer.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      3 only

(c)                  2 and 3 only        (d)      None of the above

23.      Consider the following statements related to the different planets:

1. Mars has lost its original atmosphere due to the absence of magnetic field.

2. Mercury atmosphere is comprised of carbon dioxide with thick clouds of sulphur dioxide.

3. Venus has a similar size, mass, density and gravity as well as a very similar chemical composition as compared to earth.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)                  1 and 3 only        (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  3 only       (d)      All of the above

24.      Which of the following is/are the evidences of sea floor spreading?

1. The age of the rocks increases as one move away from the crest of mid-oceanic ridges.

2. The ocean crust rocks are much younger than the continental rocks.

3. There is formation of abyssal plains that lie between the continental margins and mid-oceanic ridges.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 2     (b)      1 only

(c)                  2 and 3     (d)      All of the above

25.      Which of the following statement related to Inversion of temperature is incorrect?

(a)                  Inversion of temperature occurs when normal lapse rate is inverted.

(b)                  Surface inversion promotes stability in the lower layers of the atmosphere.

(c)                  Inversions play an important role in determining cloud forms, precipitation and visibility.

(d)                  Inversion of temperature occurs in cloudy sky and unstable air.

26.      Which of the following pairs are matched correctly?

1. Agro based industry – paper and pulp industry

2. Cottage industry – mats

3. Weight loosing Industries – food processing sector

Codes:

(a)                  1 and 2     (b)      2 and 3

(c)                  1 and 3     (d)      All of the above

27.      Which among the following correctly defines the ‘river regime’?

(a)                  Water collected from a specific area in certain duration.

(b)                  Pattern of flow of water in a river channel over a year.

(c)                  Area drained by river and its tributaries.

(d)                  Volume of water flowing in a river measured over time.

28.      Which of the following processes  related to heating and cooling of atmosphere has been incorrectly matched?

(a)                  The process of conduction leads to the heating of the lower layers of the atmosphere.

(b)                  The process of advection leads to the vertical heating of the atmosphere.

(c)                  The phenomena of ‘loo’ is associated with advection process.

(d)                  The process of convection leads to the vertical transfer of energy which is confined only to the troposphere.

29.      Consider the following statements about geological events during the evolution of peninsular drainage system:

1. Subsidence of the western flank.

2. Upheavel of Himalayas.

3. Slight tilting of the peninsular block from southeast to northwest direction.

Which of the above stated geological events is/are correct?

(a)                  1 only       (b)      1 and 2 only

(c)                  2 and 3 only        (d)      1 and 3 only

30.      Which of the following statements related to the cloud seeding is/are correct?

1. Cloud seeding is the process in which silver iodide or dry ice is dumped onto the clouds by using an aircraft or an artillery gun.

2. It requires clear sky and stable environment.

3. Gujarat was the first state to attempt cloud seeding in India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 3 only        (b)      1 and 2 only

(c)                  1 only       (d)      All of the above

31.      Consider the following river basins with relation to shale gas resources:-

1. Assam-Arakan Basin

2. Indo-Gangetic plains

3. Krishna-Godawari

4. Cambay Basin

In which of the above river basins shale gas is/ are present?

(a)                  1 and 3 only        (b)      3 and 4 only

(c)                  1,3 and 4 only     (d)      All of the above

32.      Which of the following minerals are formed through igneous rocks?

1. Diamonds 2. Tin

3. Zinc            4. Talc

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1, 2 and 3 only    (b)      2, 3 and 4 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only        (d)      All of the above

33.      Consider the following statements with relation to ‘Purvanchal Range’:

1. Purvanchal Range lies south of the Brahmaputra valley.

2. The Garo, Khasi, Jaintia hills are part of Purvanchal Range.

3. Purvanchal Mountain is/are composed largely of sedimentary rocks.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)                  1 and 2 only

(b)                  2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only

(d)                  None of the above

34.      Which of the following geological processes lead to formation of India?

1. The convectional currents split the Gondwana land leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian plate.

2. Divergent plate boundary lead to the folding of sedimentary rocks accumulated in Tethys Sea to form Himalayas.

3. Antecedent rivers lead to the formation of Northern Plains.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      3 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only        (d)      All of the above

35.      Himalaya represents youthful topography. Which of the following features is/are associated with it?

1. Spur

2. Rapids

3. Deep valleys

4. River capture

5. Ox-bow lake

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1, 2, 3 and 4 only

(b)                  1, 3 and 5 only

(c)                  1, 2 and 3 only

(d)                  1, 2, 3 and 5 only

36.      Which of the following statements related to Barbed Drainage System is/are correct?

1. It is developed in a narrow valley flanked by steep ranges.

2. It is developed due to the process of river capture.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 only       (b)      2 only

(c)                  Both 1 and 2        (d)      Neither 1 nor 2

37.      Consider the following statements with reference to Black Soil:

1. It has self ploughing in nature.

2. It is rich in lime, magnesia, iron and alumina.

3. It has high carbon exchange capacity and rich in organic matter.

Which of the above are the characteristic features of the Black Soil?

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only        (d)      All of the above

38.      Consider the following statements related to the Geology of India:

1. Paleozoic period – formation of Siwalik System in north western India

2. Proterozoic era – formation of Kashmir valley

3. Tertiary period –alluvial soil in the Indo-Gangetic basin.

Which of the above is/are correctly matched?

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  3 only       (d)      None of the above

39.      Which of the following statements related to the classification of soil water is correct?

(a)                  Capillary water is that part of soil water which is very tightly held on the surface of soil particles in very thin film by adhesion and cohesion forces.

(b)                  Gravitational water moves freely in response to gravity and drains out of the soil when the maximum capillary capacity of a soil gets exhausted.

(c)                  Soil rich in organic matter content holds much greater quantity of hygroscopic water.

(d)                  None of the above

40.      Consider the following statements with reference to Indian Rivers:

1. Kabini, Bhavani and Pambar are East flowing Rivers.

2. Narmada originates from Amarkantak, which is the meeting point of Vindhya and Satpura.

3. Bhavani River is an inland drainage which rises in the talus fan of the Shiwaliks of Sirrnur near Ambala (Haryana).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)                  1 only

(b)                  2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 2 only

(d)                  All of the above

41.      Which of the following city is most eastwardly located in India?

(a)                  Bhopal      (b)      Lucknow

(c)                  Hyderabad          (d)      Bangalore

42.      Which of the following Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group belong to Andaman and Nicobar?

1. Great Andamanese of Strait Island

2. Onges of Little Andaman

3. Sentinelese of Sentinel Islands

4. Totos of Great Nicobar

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1, 2 and 3 only

(b)                  2, 3 and 4 only

(c)                  1, 3 and 4 only

(d)                  All of the above

43.      Which of the following statements related to Trans-Himalayas is/are correct?

1. It mainly composed of granites and volcanic rocks.

2. Pir Panjal Range, Zanskar Range and Kailas Range belong to the Trans-Himalayas range.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 only       (b)      2 only

(c)                  Both 1 and 2        (d)      Neither 1 nor 2

44.      Consider the following statements with relation to Jhelum River:

1. It is the western most of five rivers of Punjab.

2. It was called Vitasta and Hydaspes in ancient times.

3. It rises from the Verinag spring at the foothills of Pir Panjal.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only       (d)      All of the above

45.      Indian Monsoon is which of the following type of air mass?

(a)                  Maritime Equatorial

(b)                  Maritime Tropical

(c)                  Continental Tropical

(d)                  None of the above

46.      Which of the following is/are the benefits of run-of-river power projects?

1. The run of river projects do not require impoundment of water.

2. It emits nearly no greenhouse gases.

3. It ensures environmentally sustainable development of local resources.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 2 only

(b)                  2 only

(c)                  2 and 3 only

(d)                  All of the above

47.      Hydroponics has emerged as the modern technology for farming. Which of the following is/are the benefits of it?

1. It requires less water as compared to soil farming.

2. It uses all the mineral nutrients present in the water thus plants grow faster.

3. It eliminates the need for herbicides and pesticides compared to traditional soil gardening.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 2 only        (b)      2 and 3 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only        (d)      All of the above

48.      Consider the following pairs:

Type/Kind of Lake      Lake

1. Tectonic Lake             :           Wular Lake

2. Lagoon Lake   :           Kolleru Lake

3. Glacial Lake     :           Sambar Lake

4. Wind-made Lake       :           Nainital Lake

Which of above pair is/are correctly matched?

(a)                  1 only       (b)      1,2 and 3 only

(c)                  3 and 4 only        (d)      All of the above

49.      Which of the following is/are the advantages of No-till farming?

1. It reduces water and wind erosion of the soil.

2. It increases water retention level of the soil thus reduces amount of watering required for crop.

3. It led to increase in beneficial insects and soil microbes in the soil thus reduces the usage of herbicides.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)                  1 and 2 only

(b)                  1 only

(c)                  1 and 3 only

(d)                  All of the above

50.      Consider the following statements with relation to Census 2011:

1. Kurung Kumey of Arunachal Pradesh is the least populated.

2. Dibang Valley of Arunachal Pradesh registered highest population growth rate.

3. Longleng district of Nagaland registered negative population growth rate.

Which of the above statement is/are correct?

(a)                  1 and 2 only

(b)                  2 and 3 only

(c)                  3 only

(d) All of the above

 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATION


Geography

  1. Ans. A

Exp. Out of total water present on Earth, the fresh water available for use is less than 1% (about 0.3%) of the total water found.

  1. Ans. A

Exp. Mediterranean Sea records high salinity due to high evaporation. Salinity is very low in Black Sea due to fresh water influx by the rivers. North Sea in spite of its location in higher latitudes records high salinity due to more saline water brought by North Atlantic drift.

  1. Ans. B

Exp: In winter the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn and the north western part of India away from marine influence experiences low temperature and high atmospheric pressure. The minimum temperature is much below than 10° to 12°C. So a high pressure centre develops over North of the Himalayas during the winter.

About pressure belts

  • Sub-tropical high pressure belts are also called horse latitudes
  • Subsidence and piling of air in sub-tropical belts cause high pressure
  • Convergence of subtropical and polar winds result in the formation cyclones in the sub-polar regions
  • High pressure belts are dry while low pressure belts are humid.
  • With the movement of sun northwards and southwards thermo equator also shifts northwards and southwards. Pressure belts also shift northwards and southwards with the shift of thermal equator.
  1. Ans. B

Exp: “Noctilucent clouds” near the North and South Poles are formed in Mesosphere.

About atmospheric layers

  • The troposphere is the layer closest to Earth’s surface. It is 4 to 12 miles (7 to 20 km) thick and contains half of Earth’s atmosphere. Air is warmer near the ground and gets colder higher up. Nearly all of the water vapor and dust in the atmosphere are in this layer and that is why clouds are found here.
  • The stratosphere is the second layer. It starts above the troposphere and ends about 31 miles (50 km) above ground. Ozone is abundant here and it heats the atmosphere while also absorbing harmful radiation from the sun. The air here is very dry, and it is about a thousand times thinner here than it is at sea level. Because of that, this is where jet aircraft and weather balloons fly.
  • The mesosphere starts at 31 miles (50 km) and extends to 53 miles (85 km) high. The top of the mesosphere, called the mesopause, is the coldest part of Earth’s atmosphere, with temperatures averaging about minus 130 degrees F (minus 90 C). This layer is hard to study. Jets and balloons don’t go high enough, and satellites and space shuttles orbit too high. Scientists do know that meteors burn up in this layer. “Noctilucent clouds” near the North and South Poles are formed in Mesosphere.
  • The thermosphere extends from about 56 miles (90 km) to between 310 and 620 miles (500 and 1,000 km). Temperatures can get up to 2,700 degrees F (1,500 C) at this altitude. The thermosphere is considered part of Earth’s atmosphere, but air density is so low that most of this layer is what is normally thought of as outer space. In fact, this is where the space shuttles flew and where the International Space Station Orbits Earth. This is also the layer where the auroras occur.
  • The exosphere, the highest layer, is extremely thin and is where the atmosphere merges into outer space. It is composed of very widely dispersed particles of hydrogen and helium.
  1. Ans. C

Exp. Different processes and their driving forces are:

  • Weathering – Gravitational/chemical Actions/molecular stress,
  • Transportation – Kinetic energy
  • Mass movement – Gravitational force
  1. Ans. C

Exp.     Asthenosphere is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth. It lies below the lithosphere, at depths between approximately 80 and 200 km below the surface. It is upper portion of Mantle. It is considered the source region of mid-ocean ridge basalt. Crust and asthnosphere together makes up Lithosphere. Asthenosphere is involved in plate tectonic movement and isostatic adjustments.

  1. Ans. C

Exp. Continental shelf is a portion of a continent that is submerged under an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods.The shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf.

The continental margin, between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain, comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise. Extending as far as 500 km (310 mi) from the slope, it consists of thick sediments deposited by turbidity currents from the shelf and slope. The continental rise’s gradient is intermediate between the slope and the shelf. Canyons and trenches are observed in Continental slope not shelf. Shelves are covered with variable thickness of sediments brought down by rivers, glaciers from the land and distributed by waves and currents. So massive sediments became the source of fossil fuels.  Metallic nodules are found in deep sea.

Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the name continental shelf was given a legal definition as the stretch of the seabed adjacent to the shores of a particular country to which it belongs. Shelf usually ends at a point of increasing slope (shelf break). The sea floor below the break is the continental slope. Below the slope is the continental rise, which finally merges into the deep ocean floor, the abyssal plain. The continental shelf and the slope are part of the continental margin.

  1. Ans: A

Exp. Block Mountains are formed when two tectonic plates move away from each other causing cracks on the surface of the Earth. When parallel cracks or faults occur, the strip of land or the block of land between them may be raised resulting in the formation of block mountains. The upward block is called a horst. Examples, Black forest and the Vosges of Rhine.

Volcanic mountains formed due to accumulation of interior magma. Residual Mountains are mountain of denudation.

  1. Ans. D

Exp. A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.Earth’s volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust’s plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America.

  1. Ans. C

Exp. The local winds are:

  • Sirocco Wind: This is a hot, dry, dusty wind which originates in the Sahara desert.
  • Fohn Wind & Chinook Wind: Both the Fohn & Chinook winds are local hot & dry winds experienced on the leeward side of the mountains when descending air become compresses with increased pressure.
  • Mistral Wind: Mistral is a cold wind from the north, rushing down the Rhone valley.
  • Bora Wind: Cold north-easterly wind experienced along the Adriatic coast is called Bora.
  1. Ans. C

Exp. Mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth’s mantle. As the heads of mantle plumes can partly melt when they reach shallow depths, they are thought to be the cause of volcanic centers known as hotspots and probably also to have caused flood basalts.Hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle. Their position on the Earth’s surface is independent of tectonic plate boundaries. There are two hypotheses that attempt to explain their origins.

Hotspots are due to mantle plumes that rise as thermal diapirs from the core–mantle boundary. The other hypothesis is that lithospheric extension permits the passive rising of melt from shallow depths. This hypothesis considers the term “hotspot” to be a misnomer, asserting that the mantle source beneath them is, in fact, not anomalously hot at all. Well-known examples include the Hawaii, Iceland and Yellowstone hotspots.

Mantle plume is a proposed mechanism of convection of abnormally hot rock within the Earth’s mantle. Because the plume head partly melts on reaching shallow depths, a plume is often invoked as the cause of volcanic hotspots, such as Hawaii or Iceland, and large igneous provinces such as the Deccan and Siberian traps.

  1. Ans. C

Exp. Plate tectonics  is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth’s lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. Tectonic plates are able to move because the Earth’s lithosphere has greater mechanical strength than the underlying asthenosphere.

However, according to Wegener, the drifting of continents was due to the pole-fleeing force and tidal force.

  1. Ans. A

Exp. Atagonian Desert,Patagonian Steppe,or Magellanic Steppe, is the largest desert in Argentina and is the 8th largest desert in the world by area.  It is located primarily in Argentina with small parts in Chile and is bounded by the Andes, to its west, and the Atlantic Ocean to its east, in the region of Patagonia, southern Argentina. To the north the desert grades into the Cuyo Region and the Pampas. The central parts of the steppe are dominated by shrubby and herbaceous plant species albeit to the west, where precipitation is higher, bushes are replaced by grasses. Topographically the deserts consist of alternating tablelands and massifs dissected by river valleys and canyons. The more western parts of the steppe host lakes of glacial origin and grades into barren mountains or cold temperate forests along valleys.

Inhabited by hunter-gatherers since Pre-Hispanic times, the desert faced migration in the 19th century of Mapuches, Chileans, Argentines, Welsh, and other European peoples, transforming it from a conflictive borderland zone to an integral part of Argentina, with cattle, sheep and horse husbandry being the primary land uses.

  1. Ans. C

Exp. Maunder Minimum, also known as the “prolonged sunspot minimum”, is the name used for the period around 1645 to 1715 during which sunspots became exceedingly rare, as was then noted by solar observers.  Maunder Minimum occurred between 1645 and 1715 when very few sunspots were observed. This was not due to a lack of observations; during the 17th century, Giovanni Domenico Cassini carried out a systematic program of solar observations at the Observatoire de Paris, thanks to the astronomers Jean Picard and Philippe de La Hire. The sunspot activity was then concentrated in the southern hemisphere of the Sun, except for the last cycle when the sunspots appeared in the northern hemisphere.

  1. Ans. C

Exp: Types of Settlements are:

Clustered Settlements

  • The clustered rural settlement is a compact or closely built up area of houses.
  • In this type of village the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures.
  • The closely built-up area and its intervening streets present some recognisable pattern or geometric shape, such as rectangular, radial, linear, etc.
  • Such settlements are generally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states. Sometimes, people live in compact village for security or defence reasons, such as in the Bundelkhand region of central India and in Nagaland. In Rajasthan, scarcity of water has necessitated compact settlement for maximum utilisation of available water resources.

Semi-Clustered Settlements

  • Semi-clustered or fragmented settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement.
  • More often such a pattern may also result from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact village. In this case, one or more sections of the village society choose or is forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village. In such cases, generally, the land-owning and dominant community occupies the central part of the main village, whereas people of lower strata of society and menial workers settle on the outer flanks of the village.
  • Such settlements are widespread in the Gujarat plain and some parts of Rajasthan.

Hamleted Settlements

  • Sometimes settlement is fragmented into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name. These units are locally called panna, para, palli, nagla, dhani, etc. in various parts of the country.
  • This segmentation of a large village is often motivated by social and ethnic factors.
  • Such villages are more frequently found in the middle and lower Ganga plain, Chhattisgarh and lower valleys of the Himalayas.

Dispersed Settlements

  • Dispersed or isolated settlement pattern in India appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes.
  • Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.
  • Many areas of Meghalaya, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala have this type of settlement.
  1. Ans. C

Exp: In scientific terms, a gravitational singularity (or space-time singularity) is a location where the quantities that are used to measure the gravitational field become infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system. In other words, it is a point in which all physical laws are indistinguishable from one another, where space and time are no longer interrelated realities, but merge indistinguishably and cease to have any independent meaning.

Singularities were first predicated as a result of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity and Chandrasekhar Limit.

  1. Ans. A

In many part of the world, beacouse of the limited returns available from small farm units, farmers frequently engage in secondary occupation to supplement the farm income. In Scandinavia for exp many farmars also work in forestry and  fishing while many part of France, the Low countries, Germany and Poland, many workers-peasants or 5° clock farmers as they have been termed combine the running of small  landholding with a full time job in a bear by urban centre. Part time farmers of this type are common in the various agricultural systems of both developing world.

  1. Ans. A

Exp. Inselberg or monadnock is an isolated rock hill, knob, ridge, or small mountain that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding plain. In southern and south-central Africa, a similar formation of granite is known as a koppie. If the inselberg is dome-shaped and formed from granite or gneiss, it can also be called a bornhardt, though not all bornhardts are inselbergs.

Lateral moraines are parallel ridges of debris deposited along the sides of a glacier. The unconsolidated debris can be deposited on top of the glacier by frost shattering of the valley walls and/or from tributary streams flowing into the valley. The till is carried along the glacial margin until the glacier melts.

Cirque  is an amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion. Alternative names for this landform are corrie (from Scottish Gaelic coire, meaning a pot or cauldron) and cwm.A cirque may also be a similarly shaped landform arising from fluvial erosion.

Sinkhole, also known as a cenote or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.

  1. Ans. C

Exp: Significance of Tides

  • Since tides are caused by the earth-moon-sun positions which are known accurately, the tides can be predicted well in advance. This helps the navigators and fishermen plan their activities.
  • Tides also clear away the sediments brought by the rivers and, thus, retard the process of delta formation.
  • Tides are also helpful in desilting the sediments and in removing polluted water from river estuaries.
  • Tides are used to generate electrical power (in Canada, France, Russia, and China). A 3 MW tidal power project at Durgaduani in Sunderbans of West Bengal is under way.
  • Tidal areas like sundarbans have helped evolve unique flora and fauna species.
  1. Ans. B

Exp. Rocks (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary) of the Earth’s surface are exposed to denudation agents, and are broken up into various sizes of fragments. Such fragments are transported by different exogenous agencies and deposited. The deposits, through compaction, turn into rocks. This process is called as lithification.

  1. Ans. A

Exp: Placer deposit, natural concentration of heavy minerals caused by the effect of gravity on moving particles. When heavy, stable minerals are freed from their matrix by weathering processes, they are slowly washed downslope into streams that quickly winnow the lighter matrix. Thus the heavy minerals become concentrated in stream, beach, and lag (residual) gravels and constitute workable ore deposits. Minerals that form placer deposits have high specific gravity, are chemically resistant to weathering, and are durable; such minerals include gold, platinum, cassiterite, magnetite, chromite, ilmenite, rutile, native copper, zircon, monazite, and various gemstones.

There are several varieties of placer deposits: stream, or alluvial, placers; eluvial placers; beach placers; and eolian placers.

  1. Ans. B

Exp: Soil forming process

  • Illuviation: The process of deposition of soil materials (removed from the eluvial horizon) in the lower layer (or horizon of gains having the property of stabilizing translocated clay materials) is termed as Illuviation. The horizons formed by this process are termed as illuvial horizons (B-horizons, especially Bt)
  • Podzolization: It is a process of soil formation resulting in the formation of Podzols and Podzolic soils.
  • Gleization: The Gleization is a process of soil formation resulting in the development of a glei (or gley horizon) in the lower part of the soil profile above the parent material due to poor drainage condition (lack of oxygen) and where waterlogged conditions prevail. Such soils are called hydro orphic soils.
  • Salinization: It is the process of accumulation of salts, such as sulphates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium, in soils in the form of a salty (salic) horizon.
  • Solonization or Alkalization: The process involves the accumulation of sodium ions on the exchange complex of the clay, resulting in the formation of sodic soils (Solonetz).
  1. Ans: A

Exp: Venus’s atmosphere is comprised of carbon dioxide with thick clouds of sulphur dioxide.

  1. Ans : A

Exp: The mapping of the ocean floor and palaeomagnetic studies of rocks from oceanic regions revealed the following facts:

(i)   It was realised that all along the mid-oceanic ridges, volcanic eruptions are common and they bring huge amounts of lava to the surface in this area.

(ii)  The rocks equidistant on either sides of the crest of mid-oceanic ridges show remarkable similarities in terms of period of formation, chemical compositions and magnetic properties. Rocks closer to the mid-oceanic ridges have normal polarity and are the youngest. The age of the rocks increases as one moves away from the crest.

(iii) The ocean crust rocks are much younger than the continental rocks. The age of rocks in the oceanic crust is nowhere more than 200 million years old. Some of the continental rock formations are as old as 3,200 million years.

(iv) The sediments on the ocean floor are unexpectedly very thin. Scientists were expecting, if the ocean floors were as old as the continent, to have a complete sequence of sediments for a period of much longer duration. However, nowhere was the sediment column found to be older than 200 million years.

(v)  The deep trenches have deep-seated earthquake occurrences while in the mid-oceanic ridge areas, the quake foci have shallow depths.

  1. Ans : D

Exp: Temperature inversion, is a reversal of the normal behavior of temperature in the troposphere, in which a layer of cool air at the surface is overlain by a layer of warmer air. (Under normal conditions, temperature usually decreases with height).

Ideal Conditions for Temperature Inversion

  1. Long nights, so that the outgoing radiation is greater than the incoming radiation.
  2. Clear skies, which allow unobstructed escape of radiation.
  3. Calm and stable air, so that there is no vertical mixing at lower levels.
  4. Ans : A

Exp: Types of Industries

  • Agro processing involves the processing of raw materials from the field and the farm into finished products for rural and urban markets. Major agro-processing industries are food processing, sugar, pickles, fruits juices, beverages (tea, coffee and cocoa), spices and oils fats and textiles (cotton, jute, silk), rubber, paper, etc
  • Cottage industry is an industry whose labor force consists of family units or individuals working at home with their own equipment. Some common everyday products produced in this sector of manufacturing include foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, furniture, shoes, and figurines from wood lot and forest, shoes, thongs and other articles from leather; pottery and bricks from clays and stones. Goldsmiths make jewellery of gold, silver and bronze. Some artefacts and crafts are made out of bamboo, wood obtained locally from the forests.
  • Weight-losing industries are industries where the raw materials are relatively bulky, but the resulting product is relatively smaller. Industries using weight-losing raw materials are located in the regions where raw materials are located.
  • Sunrise industries – A sunrise industry is one that is new or relatively new, is growing fast and is expected to become important in the future. Examples of sunrise industries include hydrogen fuel production, petrochemical industry[2], food processing industry space tourism, and online encyclopedias. A sunrise industry is often characterized by a high degree of innovation, and its rapid emergence may threaten to push into obsolescence a competing industry sector that is already in decline.
  1. Ans : B

Exp: A river regime is the difference in the discharge of the river throughout the year.

Differences in Himalayan and Peninsular river regimes:

  • Large catchment areas of HRs ensure the maximum flow during the rainy seasons and their maximum flow is far greater than that of the PRs.
  • Owning to the huge variations in the rainfall in the peninsular plateau, the regimes of different PRs vary widely whereas almost all HRs maintain a sizeable flow.
  • Gradual increase/decrease in flow: Ganga (HR) has a minimum flow during Jan-June and maximum flow during Aug/Sept and gradual steady fall afterwards, whereas Narmada (PR) has very low flow from Jan-July and a sharp rise in August and again a sudden fall in October.
  1. Ans : B

Exp: There are different ways of heating and cooling of the atmosphere.

The earth after being heated by insolation transmits the heat to the atmospheric layers near to the earth in long wave form. The air in contact with the land gets heated slowly and the upper layers in contact with the lower layers also get heated. This process is called conduction. Conduction takes place when two bodies of unequal temperature are in contact with one another, there is a flow of energy from the warmer to cooler body.

The transfer of heat continues until both the bodies attain the same temperature or the contact is broken. Conduction is important in heating the lower layers of the atmosphere. The air in contact with the earth rises vertically on heating in the form of currents and further transmits the heat of the atmsphere. This process of vertical heating of the atmosphere is known as convection. The convective transfer of energy is confined only to the troposphere.

The transfer of heat through horizontal movement of air is called advection. Horizontal movement of the air is relatively more important than the vertical movement. In middle latitudes, most of dirunal (day and night) variation in daily weather are caused by advection alone. In tropical regions particularly in northern India during summer season local winds called ‘loo’ is the outcome of advection process.

  1. Ans : B

Exp: Slight tilting of the Peninsular block from northwest to the southeastern direction gave orientation to the entire drainage system towards the Bay of Bengal during the same period.

  1. Ans: C

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: Clouds form from the condensation of invisible water vapor on nuclei from dust, pollen, salt from ocean spray, even sulfite particles from phytoplankton in the oceans: Cloud seeding increases the number of these available nuclei. Raindrops or ice crystals might not form without these added nuclei. Most cloud-seeding operations inject silver iodide into clouds either from aircraft or land- based stations on mountaintops where updrafts carry the silver iodide into passing clouds.

Statement 2 is incorrect: Effective cloud seeding is only possible in the presence of clouds that are capable of producing rain.

Statement 3 is incorrect: Tamil Nadu became the first state in the country to attempt cloud- seeding as early as 1983-1984. Karnataka and Maharashtra followed in 2003 and 2008 respectively when drought situations prevailed.

  1. Ans: D

Exp.  Shale  gas  is  natural  gas  that  is  found  trapped  within  shale  formations.  Shale  gas  has  become  an increasingly  important  source  of  natural  gas  in  the  United  States  since  the  start  of  this  century,  and interest has spread to potential gas shales in the rest of the world. In 2000 shale gas provided only 1% of U.S. natural gas production; by 2010 it was over 20% and the U.S. government’s Energy Information Administration predicts that by 2035, 46% of the United States’ natural gas supply will come from shale gas.

To  strengthen  its  hydrocarbon  resource  base,  India  has  identified  six  basins  as  areas  for  shale  gas exploration: Cambay (Gujarat), Assam-Arakan (North East), Gondwana (Central India), Krishna Godavari onshore (East Coast), Cauvery onshore, and Indo-Gangetic basins.

  1. Ans: A

  2. Ans: C

Exp. Statement 1 is correct: Purvanchal Mountains, or Eastern Mountains, are a sub-mountain range of the Himalayas in northeast India. It lies south of the Brahmaputra valley. Purvanchal Mountains cover the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram.

The range is an eastern extension of the Himalayan Range System, in north eastern India. It bends sharply to  the  south  beyond  the  Dihang  River  gorge,  and  spreads  along  the  eastern  boundary  of  India  with Myanmar. The Purvanchal range includes the hill ranges of the Patkai, Barail range, Manipur, Mizoram Mizo, and Naga Hills.

Statement 2 is incorrect: The Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills are part of Shillong Plateau, and not part of the

Purvanchal range.

Statement  3  is  correct:  Purvanchal  Mountains  are  composed  largely  of  strong  sandstone  geological formations.

  1. Ans: C

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: The Gondwana land included India, Australia, South Africa, South America and Antarctica as one single land mass. The convectional currents split the crust into a number of pieces, thus leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian plate after being separated from the Gondwana land, towards north.

Statement 2 is incorrect: The northward drift of Indo- Australian plate resulted in the collision of the plate with the much larger Eurasian Plate. Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosyncline known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya. It is convergent plate boundary.

Statement 3 is correct: The Himalayan uplift out of the Tethys sea and subsidence of the northern flank of the peninsular plateau resulted in the formation of a large basin. In due course of time this depression, gradually got filled with deposition of sediments by the rivers flowing from the mountains in the north and the peninsular plateau in the south. A flat land of extensive alluvial deposits led to the formation of the northern plains of India.

  1. Ans: C

Exp: Himalaya represents a very youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers

Spur is a usually short, continuously sloping line of higher ground, normally jutting out from the side of a ridge. A spur is often formed by two thoroughly parallel streams cutting draws down the side of a ridge.

Rapids are areas of shallow, fast-flowing water in a stream. Rapids tend to form in younger streams, with water flow that is straighter and faster than in older streams. Softer rocks in the streambed erode, or wear away, faster than harder rocks. This process is known as differential erosion.

River capture, meandering, ox-bow lakes and formation of flood-plains landforms are related to Mature stage.

  1. Ans: B

Exp: Statement 1 is incorrect: Barbed drainage pattern, a rare kind of drainage pattern, is formed when the tributaries flow in opposite direction to their master streams. The tributaries join their master streams in a hook-shaped bend.

Pinnate Drainage Pattern is developed in a narrow valley flanked by steep ranges. The tributaries originating from the steep sides of parallel ridges join the longitudinal master consequent occupying the valley at acute angles. The drainage network of the upper Son and Narmada rivers denotes the example of pinnate drainage pattern. This pattern resembles the veins of a leaf.

Statement 2 is correct: Barbed drainage pattern is generally developed due to river capture.

  1. Ans: A
  • Black colour  of  the  soil  is  due  to  the  presence  of  titaniferous  magnetite,  compounds  of  iron  and aluminium, humus and colloidal hydrated double iron and aluminium silicate. It has clayey texture and are highly fertile

Statement 1 is correct: Black soil is known for its self ploughing nature because it is a clayey soil and has much moisture in it. It also develops cracks during summers which exposes it to sunlight and water from rains. Thus it becomes easy to plough it.

Statement 2 is correct: It is rich in calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash, lime, iron. but poor in nitrogen and phosphorous. It is highly retentive of moisture, extremely compact and tenacious when wet.

Statement 3 is incorrect: It is calcareous and neutral to mild alkaline in reaction, high in carbon exchange capacity and low in organic matter.

  1. Ans: D

Exp. Water eroded area – 56% Forest degraded area – 28% Wind Eroded area – 10%

Exp: Statement 1 is incorrect: Siwalik System in north western India formed in Cenozoic era.

Statement  2  is  incorrect:  The  Cambrian  System  of  India  in  Paleozoic  era  consists  of  the  following formations:

  1. a) The Salt Range containing the Salt Marl and Saline Series b) The Spiti area containing the Haimanta System
  2. c) The formations of Kashmir Valley.

Statement 3 is incorrect: The alluvial soil was formed in the Indo-Gangetic basin in Quaternary Period.

  1. Ans: B

Exp: Hygroscopic water:

It is that part of soil water which is very tightly held on the surface of soil particles in very thin film by adsorption forces such as adhesion and cohesion.

Capillary water:

It is the water held by the forces of surface tension and continuous film around soil particles and in the

capillary spaces.

Gravitational water:

It is that part of soil water, which moves freely in response to gravity and drains out of the soil. When the maximum capillary capacity of a soil gets satisfied and further addition of water comes under the force of gravity. This water starts moving as free water through the macropores and it is called gravitational water.

  1. Ans: C

Exp. Statement 1 is correct: There are three east flowing rivers in Kerala – Kabani River, Bhavani River and

Pambar River.

Statement 2 is correct: Amarkantak is a pilgrim town and a Nagar Panchayat in Anuppur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Amarkantak region is a unique natural heritage area and is the meeting point of the Vindhya and the Satpura Ranges, with the Maikal Hills being the fulcrum. This is where the Narmada River, the Son River and Johila River emerge.

Statement 3 is incorrect: Ghaggar River is an inland drainage which rises in the talus fan of the Shiwaliks of Sirrnur near Ambala (Haryana).

  1. Ans: B

 

  1. Ans: A

Exp: Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) are characterized by (a) a pre-agriculture level of technology, (b) a stagnant or declining population (c ) extremely low literacy and (d) a subsistence level of economy.

Particularly  vulnerable  tribal  group  (PVTG)  (earlier:  Primitive  tribal  group)  is  a  government  of  India classification created with the purpose of enabling improvement in the conditions of certain communities with particularly low development indices.

Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh

(12), Bihar including Jharkhand (9) Madhya Pradesh including Chhattisgarh (7) Tamil Nadu (6) Kerala and

Gujarat having five groups each. The remaining PVTGs live in West Bengal (3) Maharashtra (3), two each in Karnataka and Uttarakhand and one each in Rajasthan, Tripura and Manipur.

Particularly vulnerable Tribal Groups (PTGs) who have been identified in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. They are:-

  1. Great Andamanese of Strait Island
  2. Onges of Little Andaman
  3. Jarawas of South and Middle Andaman
  4. Sentinelese of Sentinel Islands
  5. Shompens of Great Nicobar

43.Ans: A

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: Trans-Himalayas, eastward continuation of the most northerly ranges of the Himalayas in the southern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. It consists of an ill-defined mountain area about 600 miles (1,000 km) long and 140 miles (225 km) wide in the centre, narrowing to a 20-mile (32-km) width at the eastern and western ends. The Trans-Himalayas, mainly composed of granites and volcanic rocks of Neogene and Paleogene age.

Statement  2  is  incorrect:  Ladakh,  Zanskar,  Kailas,  Karakoram  Range  (not  Pir  Panjal)  belongs  to  Tans- Himalayan range.

44.Ans: D

Exp. Jhelum River is a river of west Kashmir and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about 725 kilometres. River Jhelum is called Vitastā in the Rigveda and Hydaspes by the ancient Greeks. The Vitastā is mentioned as one of the major rivers by the Holy Scriptures — the Rigveda. It rises from the Verinag spring at the foothills of Pir Panjal.

  1. Ans: B

Exp. Maritime Tropical Air Masses (MT)

  • The source regions of these air masses include the oceans in tropics and sub-tropics such as Mexican

Gulf, the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans.

  • These air masses are warm, humid and unstable.
  • The weather during winter has mild temperatures, overcast skies with fog.
  • During summer, the weather is characterized by high temperatures, high humidity, cumulous clouds and convectional rainfall.
  1. Ans: D

Exp: Run-of-River Hydroelectric (ROR hydro) projects generate electricity by using part of natural stream flows and natural elevation differences found in mountainous regions. With ROR hydro, a portion of the mountain stream is diverted by an intake structure into a buried pipe where it is channeled downstream into one or more turbines. The flowing water causes the turbine(s) to spin. A generator is directly attached to the turbine and creates electricity. The water from the turbine is released unaffected back into the stream.

Statement 1 is correct: Power stations on rivers with great seasonal fluctuations require a large reservoir in order to operate during the dry season, resulting in the necessity to impound and flood large tracts of land. In contrast, run of river projects do not require impoundment of water.

Statement 2 is correct: Compared to a large hydro dam the impacts tend to be much lower, and these projects produce nearly no greenhouse gas emissions.

Statement 3 is correct: Hydro systems are smaller – typically less than 30 megawatts – they occupy very little space and tend to blend into the environment. This makes them ideal for smaller streams and rivers where a Reservoir system wouldn’t be appropriate. A side benefit is that transmission lines are much shorter; in fact, they often reduce transmission losses by providing locally generated power instead of requiring lines from large generating plants that may be hundreds of miles away.

Flooding the upper part of the river is not required as it doesn’t need a reservoir. As a result, people living at or near the river don’t need to be relocated and natural habitats are preserved, reducing the environmental impact as compared to reservoirs.

  1. Ans: D

Exp: Hydroponics involves growing healthy plants without the use of a traditional soil medium by using a nutrient like a mineral rich water solution instead.

Benefits of Hydroponics are:

  • By providing constant and readily available nutrition, hydroponics allows plants to grow up to 50% faster than  they  would  in  soil.  Also,  fresh  produce  can  be  harvested  from  a  hydroponic  garden throughout the year.
  • Great for both the environment and the grown product, hydroponic gardening virtually eliminates the need for herbicides and pesticides compared to traditional soil gardening.
  • Any water that is used in hydroponic gardening stays in the system and can be reused, reducing the constant need for a fresh water supply.
  • Arable land  is  often  in  short  supply  and  gardening  space  continues  to  decrease.  A  great  option when you lack yard space or have a tiny balcony, hydroponics also lends itself really well to indoor gardening.
  1. Ans: A
  2. Deltaic Lake- In deltaic regions, some small or large lakes develop between several distributaries.

These are generally freshwater lakes. Exp. Kolleru Lake, (Krishna-Godavari delta)

  1. Wind-made Lake– In deserts where wind erodes the surface soil continuously at a place, a lake is formed there. It is called a playa. It is generally a salt water lake. Exp. Samnhar, Didwana.
  2. Glacial lake- A glacial lake is formed when a glacier erodes the land and then melts filling the space that it has crested. Exp Nainital, Bhimtal, Rakastal.
  3. Lagoon lake- When some part of the coastal sea water gets separated from the mainland by sand, rocks or coral reefs, the lake like shape formed by it is called a lagoon. Exp Chilika, Pulicat, Vembanad, Ashtamudi, etc.
  4. Tectonic lake- It is formed by sinking or rising of a large portion of earth’s surface. Exp Wular Lake.
  5. Ans: A

Exp: No-tillage farming is a farming practice where the soil is minimally disturbed from planting to harvest. During the planting process, holes are drilled into the soil where the seed will be planted and then covered up. This method leaves ground surface in tact, along with the residues from the previous crop.

Benefits:

  • By leaving the soil mostly undisturbed and leaving high levels of crop residues behind, soil erosion is almost eliminated through no-till farming.
  • The utilization  of  crop  residues  in  no-till  farming  also  drastically  increases  water  infiltration  and therefore retention (i.e. less evaporation) by the soil. This means there is less runoff of contaminated (by fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) water, as well as a reduction in the amount of watering necessary for a given crop.
  • As soil fertility is built and maintained, and as water is conserved within the soil, no-till farming helps to increase crop yields.
  • As the soil fertility increases, crop residue remains, and the overall soil ecology gets healthier and healthier with significantly reduced disturbance, there is typically an increase in beneficial insects and soil microbes in the soil. This increased level of beneficial insects and soil microbes supports the base of a healthy food web that can support a wide array of wildlife. When cover crops are used, they also help to increase these benefits even more.

However, High amounts of herbicides may be used to control weeds that grow in cultivated no-tillage acreage.

  1. Ans: C

The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration. The motto of the census was ‘Our Census, Our future’. C Chandramauli was the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India for the-2011, Indian Census.

Facts related to Census 2011

  • Thane district of Maharashtra is the most populated district of India.
  • Dibang Valley of Arunachal Pradesh is the least populated.
  • Kurung Kumey of Arunachal Pradesh registered highest population growth rate of 111.01 percent.
  • Longleng district of Nagaland registered negative population growth rate of (-)58.39.
  • Mahe district of Puducherry has highest sex ratio of 1176 females per 1000 males.
  • Daman district has lowest sex ratio of 533 females per 1000 males.
  • Serchhip district of Mizoram has highest literacy rate of 98.76 percent.
  • Alirajpur of MP is the least literate district of India with figure of 37.22 percent only.
  • North East Delhi has the higest density with figure of 37346 person per square kilometer.