50 – Most Probable GS Mock Test Questions

1.   Consider the following statements related to the ecosystem:

1.  An ecosystem consists of a community of organisms together with their physical environment.

2.  Matter and energy are recycled in an ecosystem.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

2.   Which of the following statements related to the Bomb cyclone is/are correct?

1.  It is a storm caused by a collision of warm air and cold air which develop into rotating storm-like pattern.

2.  It is a tropical storm which occurs due to rapid fall in the pressure only.

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

3.   The Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM) is a response to ‘nutrient challenge’ in the global environment. Which of the following is/are the impacts of excess nutrients in the environment?

1.  Marine pollution and eutrophication

2.  Destruction of ozone

3.  Additional global warming potential

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 1 only

(c) 1 and 3 only  (d) All of the above

4.   Consider the following statements with reference to the river deltas:

1.  River deltas are only a coastal feature and not an inland feature.

2.  Dam-building has an adverse effect on the extent of a delta.

3.  Ganges-Brahmaputra delta is a tide-dominated delta.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 2 only              (b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only  (d) All of the above

5.   Which of the following constitutional provisions get restricted under the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967?

1.  Freedom of speech

2.  Right to form associations

3.  Right to assemble peacefully

4.  Right to double jeopardy

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 4 only  (b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3 only   (d)             All of the above

6.   Consider the following statements related to the National Commission of Backward classes:

1.  The commission has the statutory status and have powers of a civil court while investigating matters.

2.  It can “investigate and monitor” the matters related to preserving the safeguards for Other Backward Classes.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

7.   Which of the following parameters are taken into account while calculating the New methodology of Calculating GDP?

1.  Market prices paid by customers.

2.  Prices of products received by producers.

3.  Measures the contribution of an economic,  sector or region.

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 1 only             

(d) All of the above

8.   Recently in news, the National Level Entrepreneurship Awareness Campaign has been launched by:

(a) State Bank of India (SBI)

(b) Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)

(c) Micro Finance Bank (MFB)

(d) None of the above

9.   Which of the following metals/alloy were known to the people of Indus Valley civilization?

(a) Copper, bronze, silver and gold

(b) Copper, bronze, silver and iron

(c) Bronze, silver, gold and iron

(d) Iron, copper, silver and gold

10. Consider the following statements regarding Advaita school of philosophy:

1.  It denies the authority of Upanishads.

2.  It emphasizes the idea of Moksha.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(b) Both 1 and 2 (c) Neither 1 nor 2

11. In the context of ecological food chains, consider the following statements:

1.  Primary producers create biomass using energy from certain chemical compounds.

2.  Nearly 10% of energy is wasted as one move from lower trophic level to higher trophic level. 

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

12. Identify the National Park having following characteristic features:

1.  It forms part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

2.  River Nugu runs through the park.

3.  Gopalaswamy Betta pilgrimage centre lies in it.

4.  It has dry deciduous forests, moist deciduous forests and shrublands biomes.

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) Mukurthi National Park

(b) Silent Valley

(c) Bandipur National Park

(d) Nagarhole National Park

13. Consider the following statements about Commercial Papers (CP):

1.  CPs can be issued for maturities between a minimum of 7 days and a maximum of up to one year from the date of issue.

2.  Procedural requirements for securing bank facilities and charge creation on assets is not required.

3.  Commercial paper markets can be seasonal and vulnerable to liquidity conditions.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only              (d) All of the above

14. Consider the following statements with reference to the Vote on Account:

1.  The vote-on-account is normally valid for two months.

2.  ‘Vote on Account’ deals only with the expenditure side of the government’s budget.

3.  It would be the prerogative of the new government to signal its policy direction, which is often reflected in the Budget.

4.  A vote-on-account is treated as a formal matter and passed by Lok Sabha without discussion.

Which of the above statements are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only   (b)             2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 2 and 4 only  (d) All of the above

15. Which of the following statements related to the Bills laid in the Parliament is/are correct?

1.  A Bill containing any of the provisions calculated to make a Bill a Money Bill cannot be referred to a Joint Committee of the Houses.

2.  Constitution Amendment Bills can be introduced in either House of Parliament.

3.  A Money Bill cannot be returned to the House by the President for reconsideration. 

       Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only              (d) All of the above

16. Which of the following Constitutional Rights are provided to the SCs and STs?

1.  Traffic in human beings and forced labour are prohibited.

2.  Seats shall be reserved for the SCs and STs in every form of Urban Government.

3.  Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act (1996) (PESA) for the preservation of the customs, practices and resources of the STs.

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only              (b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only  (d) All of the above

17. Charles Wood prepared a despatch on an educational system for India.  Which of the following is/are the provisions related to it?

1.  It recommended English as the medium of instruction for higher studies and vernaculars at school level.

2.  It laid stress on female and vocational, education, and on teachers’ training.

3.  It recommended transfer of control of primary education to newly set up district and municipal boards.

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only              (b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only  (d) All of the above

18. Consider the following statements regarding the Vijayanagara empire:

1.  Krishna Deva Raya laid the foundation of Saluva dynasty.

2.  He was a great patron of art and literature and was known as Andhrabhoj.

3.  Battle of Talikota was fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan Sultanates.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1 and 3 only 

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 2 only

19. Consider the following statements about Thermal Battery Plant:

1.  Thermal batteries generate energy by creating the temperature differences.

2.  It has a low carbon footprint.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

20. Consider the following:

1.  Single-crop agriculture

2.  Ecotourism

3.  Excess pumping of underground water tables

       Which of the above pose a threat to the biodiversity?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

21. In the context of Tiger conservation what is TIGERNET?

(a) An e-network connecting all the forest officials related with Project Tiger in a particular State.

(b) A network of smart cameras monitoring the Tigers in a particular Tiger Reserve.

(c) A network of the apex Tiger conservation authorities in the Tiger range countries of Asia.

(d) An official database of the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).

22. Both groundwater availability and quality has become a major resource crisis of India. Consider the following statements in this regard:

1.  Water Tables are lowest in the Eastern India.

2.  Natural groundwater recharge is easier in the Indo-Gangetic plains than in the peninsular India.

3.  Nitrate and Iron are one of the commonly observed water contaminants.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 2 only              (b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only  (d) All of the above

23. In the context of the road network in India, consider the following statements:

1.  The length of State Highways is less than National Highways.

2.  India has one of the highest road-density (km/sq. km) in the world.

       Which of the above statements is/are true?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

24. Which of the following provisions of the constitution came into effect/force , before the commencement (26th January) of the constitution?

1.  Citizenship

2.  Elections

3.  Fundamental rights

4.  Directive principles

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 3 and 4 only

(c) 1 and 3 only  (d) All of the above

25. Consider the following statements regarding the post of Governor in India:

1.  In India same person cannot be appointed as Governer  for two or more states.

2.  No procedures have been laid down in the constitution of India for the removal of a Governor from his/her post.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

26. Consider the following statements related to the No-confidence Motion:

1.  It can be moved only in the Lok Sabha and not Rajya Sabha. 

2.  It can be moved against the entire council of ministers only.

3.  It is moved for censuring the council of ministers for specific policies and actions.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 only              (d) 1 and 3 only

27. Which of the following is/are the functions of the NITI Aayog?

1.  It aims at fostering cooperative federalism.

2.  It provides platform for resolution of inter-sectoral and inter departmental issues.

3.  It act as an instrument to bring outside ideas into policy-making.

       Select the correct answer using codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only  (d) All of the above

28. Which of the following statements with reference to the Wholesale Price Index (WPI)?

1.  It include Consumer goods and services.

2.  It gives lesser weightage to food and maximum to manufactured items.

3.  It is published by Economic Advisor to Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only              (d) All of the above

29. With reference to Money, which of the following statement is/are correct?

1.  Money is a medium of exchange having a legal tender recognized by the Monetary Authority of India.

2.  Money has store value, but not intrinsic value.

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

30. Which of the following crops are covered under Project CHAMAN?

1.  Banana           2.  Apple

3.  Potato            4.  Chilli

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only   (b)             1, 3 and 4 only

(c) 3 and 4 only  (d) All of the above

31. Which of the following is/are the fundamental duties laid down in Indian constitution for the citizens?

1.  To preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.

2.  To protect the weaker section from social injustice.

3.  To develop the scientific temper and spirit of inquiry.

4.  To strive toward excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.

       Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 2 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only   (d)             All of the above

32. Which of the following options is/are not correctly matched?

      Name of               Importance

      the Battle

1.  1st battle    :   
Prithviraj Chauhan

      of Tarain           defeated Md. Ghori.

2.  2nd battle :   
Akbar defeated

      of Panipat        Hemu

3.  Battle of      :   
Aurangzeb defeated

      Samugarh        Dara Sikoh

4.  Battle of      :   
Nadir Shah defeated

      Karnal               
Muhammad Shah

       Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 4 only  (b) 3 only

(c) 4 only              (d) None of the above

33. Consider the following statements regarding  Surat session:

1.  In the Surat session, first time discussion over ‘Swaraj’ took place.

2.  The Surat session was presided by Rash Behari Bose.

       Which of the above statement is/are incorrect?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

34. Consider the following statements about the Steppe type of climate:

1.  It is conducive for grassland type vegetation with scattered trees.

2.  Except for Antarctica it is found in all the continents.

3.  It is highly favorable to support beef industry.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only  (d) All of the above

35. Plateaus are one of the most distinct highlands. In this context consider the following statements:

1.  They may have tectonic as well as volcanic origin.

2.  Deccan Plateau solely has the volcanic origin.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

36. In the context of oceanic salinity it is observed that the Pacific is less saltier than the Atlantic. What could be the possible factor?

(a) Melting of polar ice caps

(b) Freshwater intake from the river runoffs

(c) Trade winds

(d) None of the above

37. Which of the following function of the Parliament is incorrect?

(a) It approves all the three types of emergencies (national, state and financial) proclaimed by the President.

(b) It can create or abolish the state legislative assemblies.

(c) It can increase or decrease the area, alter the boundaries and change the names of states of the Indian Union.

(d) It can regulate the organisation and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts.

38. The Supreme Court is authorised to grant in its special leave to appeal from any judgement in any matter passed by any court or tribunal in the country. Which of the following statements related to it is/are correct?

1.  It is a discretionary power and can be granted in any judgement whether final or interlocutory.

2.  It is related to criminal matters mainly.

3.  It can be granted against any subordinate court and not necessarily against a high court.

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only              (b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only  (d) All of the above

39. Exercise KAKADU was held between which of the following countries?

(a) India and Japan

(b) India and China

(c) India and Australia

(d) India and Saudi Arabia

40. Arctic Region has often been in the news. In this context consider the following:

1.  Norway          2.  Finland

3.  Denmark       4.  Iceland

       Which of the above is/are open to the Arctic Ocean?

(a) 1 only             

(b) 1 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2 and 4 only

41. Which of the following statements related to the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India is incorrect?

(a) Any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal is characterized as charged expenditure.

(b) No voting takes place for the amount involved in these expenditures for their withdrawal from Consolidated Fund of India.

(c) The salary, allowances but not pension payable to or in respect of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India is characterized as charged expenditure.

(d) The demand for grant for these charges is also made on recommendation of the president.

42. Consider the following statements regarding ‘Adopt a heritage’ scheme:

1.  It is launched by the Ministry of Tourism in collaboration with Ministry of Culture and ASI.

2.  Its sole aim is the development of tourism infrastructure at the World Heritage Sites in India.

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

43. Recently Piyush Goyel was awarded by the honour of Carnot prize, consider the following statements in reference to this statement:

1.  Carnot Prize is considered as one of the most prestigious awards in the petroleum sector. 

2.  It is given annually, recognizes distinguished contributions to renewable energy policy through scholarship or practice. 

       Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

44. Consider the following species:

1.  Asiatic Lion

2.  Asiatic Wild Ass

3.  Bengal Tiger

4.  Lion-tailed Macaque

5.  Pygmy Hog

       Which of the above is/are found only in India?

(a) 1 and 5 only 

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 2, 4 and 5 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

45. Which of the following parameters are used by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to monitor the quality of drinking water?

1.  Concentration of Coliforms organisms.

2.  Biochemical Oxygen Demand

3.  Quantity of Dissolved Oxygen

4.  pH level

5.  Suspended Particles

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 2, 4 and 5 only

(b) 1, 2, 3 and 5 only

(c) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

(d) All of the above

46. In the context of India, which of the following tree species are common to both moist and dry tropical deciduous forests?

1.  Teak                2.  Sal

3.  Oak                  4.  Rosewood

       Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 2 only              (b) 1 and 4 only

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only   (d)             All of the above

47. Consider the following statements with reference to the Brahmaputra River:

1.  Barak river is one of its left bank tributary.

2.  It is the longest and the largest river in India.

3.  Lohit is a tributary of Brahmaputra which originates in the Myanmar.

       Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

(a) 1 only              (b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only  (d) 1, 2 and 3

48. Which of the following are the principle objectives of the Monetary Policy?

1.  Providing full employment

2.  Price Stability

3.  Economic Growth

4.  Balance of Payment

       Select the correct answer using codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only   (b)             2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 2 and 4 only  (d) All of the above

49. Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) is:

(a) Financial institution

(b) Specialized financial institution (SFIs)

(c) Investment institutions

(d) None of the above

50. Which of the following are the components of Current Account?

1.  Export and import of Goods

2.  Investment to and from abroad

3.  Unilateral transfer from abroad

4.  Change in Foreign Exchange Reserve

       Select the correct answer using codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only  (b) 1 and 4 only

(c)   2 and 3 only                (d)          1 and 3 only

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

1.      Ans: A

Exp: An ecosystem consists of a community of organisms together with their physical environment.

Ecology is the study of the relationship between living organisms and their environment. An ecosystem is a place, such as a rotting log, a forest, or even a schoolyard, where interactions between living and non- living things occur. Hence an ecosystem is a sub-set of ecology.

Energy, unlike matter, cannot be recycled in ecosystems. Instead, energy flow through an ecosystem is a one-way street—generally, from light to heat. Energy can be passed between organisms, but it cannot be recycled because some of it is lost as heat in each transfer.

2.      Ans: A

Exp: Bomb cyclone is essentially a storm caused by a collision of warm air and cold air which develop into rotating storm-like pattern and lead to an explosive deepening of pressure.

A storm is considered a ‘bomb’ when the pressure drops rapidly — at least 24 millibars in 24 hours. Bomb cyclones also draw air from polar region after it weakens.

A bombogenesis storm can be tropical or non-tropical.

3.      Ans: D

Exp: The Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM) is a response to this ‘nutrient challenge’

– how to reduce the amount of excess nutrients in the global environment consistent with global development. The GPNM reflects a need for strategic, global advocacy to trigger governments and stakeholders in moving towards lower nitrogen and phosphorous inputs to human activities. It provides a platform for governments, UN agencies, scientists and the private sector to forge a common agenda, mainstreaming best practices and integrated assessments, so that policy making and investments are effectively ‘nutrient proofed’. The GPNM also provide a space where countries and other stakeholders can forge more co-operative work across the variety of international & regional fora and agencies dealing with nutrients, including the importance of assessment work.

Excess nutrients from fertilizers, fossil fuel burning, and wastewater from humans, livestock, aquaculture and industry lead to air, water, soil and marine pollution, with loss of biodiversity and fish, destruction of ozone and additional global warming potential.

4.      Ans: C

Exp: River deltas can be formed inland also for example when a river meets the lake.

Dams check the supply of sediments to the deltas which in turn tends to decrease the area of deltas.

Deltas which undergo strong tidal interaction are classified as tide-dominated deltas and Ganges- Brahmaputra delta falls into such category. One of the features of a tide-dominated delta is that it has many linear structures parallel to the tidal flow and perpendicular to the shore, as found in Ganges delta too.

5.      Ans: C

Exp: The UAPA was introduced in 1967 as a legislation to set out reasonable restrictions on the fundamental freedoms under Article 19(1) of the the Constitution, such as freedom of speech, right to assemble peacefully and right to form associations. These restrictions were meant to be used to safeguard India’s integrity and sovereignty.

Over the years, terror-specific legislations like Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) and Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA) were repealed after running into legal trouble, and the UAPA became the primary anti-terror legislation in India.

Since 2004, there have been a number of amendments to the UAPA to make it stricter when it comes to the rights of accused, and include more terror-related offences. In line with its stated objectives, the UAPA punishes the commission, funding and support of “unlawful activities” and “terrorist acts”.

6.      Ans: B

Exp: It has got the constitutional status.

7.      Ans: B

Exp: GVA methodology

  • The government changed the base year for estimating GDP from 2004-05 to 2011-12. This, however, is done routinely after every five years or so to keep the numbers contemporary and incorporate the changing structure of the economy.
    • India’s GDP is now measured by using gross value added (GVA) at market price, rather than factor cost. Simply put, the new formula takes into account market prices paid by consumers. It is calculated by adding GDP at factor price and indirect taxes (minus subsidies). Earlier, domestic GDP was calculated at factor or basic cost, which took into account prices of products received by producers.
    • Gross Value Added (GVA) measures the contribution to of an economy, producer, sector or region. GVA provides the rupee value of the amount of goods and services that have been produced, less the cost of all inputs and raw materials while producing these goods and services. There can be GVA for a firm, industry, sector or the entire economy.
  • Hence, first calculate the GVA of each sector in a prescribed format. Here, the SNA and the new methodology adopted in India calculate sectoral GVA at basic prices.
    • When using production or income approaches to estimate national income are adopted, the

contribution of a particular industry or sector to an economy is measured using GVA.

GVA: Gross value added (GVA) is the value addition done to a product resulting in the production of final

product.

GDP: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the total value of products produced in the country. Gross value added = GDP + subsidies on products – taxes on products

Where,

GDP = private consumption + gross investment + government investment + government spending + (exports – imports)

è While GDP gives a picture of the whole economy, GVA gives pictures at enterprises, government and households levels. In other words, GDP is GVA of all enterprises, government, and households.

8.      Ans: B

Exp: It is a National Level Entrepreneurship Awareness Campaign launched by Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) on the occasion of Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

The campaign has been launched in 115 Aspirational Districts identified by NITI Aayog in 28 States.

9.      Ans: A

Exp: Iron was not known to the people of Indus valley civilization.

10.  Ans: B

Exp: The term Advaita refers to its idea that the true self, Atman, is the same as the highest metaphysical Reality (Brahman). The followers of this school are known as Advaita Vedantins, or just Advaitins, and they seek spiritual liberation through acquiring vidya, meaning knowledge, of one’s true identity as Atman, and the identity of Atman and Brahman.

Advaita Vedanta traces its roots in the oldest Upanishads. It relies on three textual sources called the Prasthanatrayi. It gives “a unifying interpretation of the whole body of Upanishads”, the Brahma Sutras, and the Bhagavad Gita. Advaita Vedanta is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedanta, which is one of the six orthodox (astika) Hindu philosophies (darsana). Although its roots trace back to the 1st millennium BCE, the most prominent exponent of the Advaita Vedanta is considered by the tradition to be 8th century scholar Adi Shankara.

Advaita Vedanta emphasizes Jivanmukti, the idea that moksha (freedom, liberation) is achievable in this life in contrast to Indian philosophies that emphasize videhamukti, or moksha after death.

11.  Ans: A

Exp: Autotrophs are of 2  kinds:  Photo-autotrophs  and  Chemo-autotrophs.  Photo-autotrophs  such  as plants, use energy from sunlight to make organic compounds—sugars—out of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. Chemo-autotrophs use energy from chemicals to build organic compounds out of carbon dioxide or similar molecules. This is called chemosynthesis. For instance, there are hydrogen sulfide- oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria found in undersea vent communities where no light can reach.

Nearly 10% of energy is transferred to higher trophic level and 90% is wasted or dissipated.

12.  Ans: C

Exp: Bandipur National Park established in 1974 as a tiger reserve under Project Tiger, is a national park located in the south Indian state of Karnataka, which is the state with the highest tiger population in India. It is one of the premier Tiger Reserves in the country along with the adjoining Nagarhole national park. It was once a private hunting reserve for the Maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore but has now been

upgraded to Bandipur Tiger Reserve.

The entire region comes under the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve which is one of the most wide spread territories in India protected forests.

The park has a variety of biomes including dry deciduous forests, moist deciduous forests and shrub lands. The wide range of habitats help support a diverse range of organisms.

The park is flanked by the Kabini River in the north and the Moyar River in the south. There are also two minor streams flowing through the region and the entire area is irrigated by river Moyar and these two rivulets.

The Nugu River runs through the park. The highest point in the park is on a hill called Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta, where there is a Hindu temple at the summit. The place also boasts for the sandalwood trees and many unique species of flora are also found here.

Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta is the highest peak in Bandipur National Park. It attracts a large number of

trekkers, pilgrims and nature lovers.

13.  Ans: D

Exp: A commercial Paper (CP) is an unsecured loan raised by firms in money markets through instruments issued in the form of a promissory note. CPs can be issued for maturities between a minimum of 7 days and a maximum of up to one year from the date of issue.

Apart from being a cheaper source of funds, it helps meet funding requirements relatively quickly for better-rated corporates. Procedural requirements for securing bank facilities and charge creation on assets is not required.

As the CP is an unsecured loan, the investor in commercial papers largely prefers highly-rated corporate or public sector entities in terms of credit rating. Lender appetite is limited to better rated companies. Also commercial paper markets can be seasonal and vulnerable to liquidity conditions.

14.  Ans: D

Exp: What is a vote on account?

A vote on account essentially means that the government seeks the approval of Parliament for meeting expenditure — paying salaries, ongoing programmers in various sectors etc — with no changes in the taxation structure, until a new government takes over and presents a full Budget that is revised for the full fiscal.

Why present a vote on account?

The reasoning is that there is little time to get approvals from Parliament for various grants to ministries and departments and to debate these as well as any provisions for changes in taxation.

More importantly, the reasoning is that it would be the prerogative of the new government to signal its policy direction, which is often reflected in the Budget.

Difference between Full Budget and Vote on Account:

Full Budget deals with both expenditure and revenue side but Vote-on-account deals only with the expenditure side of the government’s budget.

The vote-on-account is normally valid for two months but full budget is valid for 12 months (a financial year).

As a convention, a vote-on-account is treated as a formal matter and passed by Lok Sabha without discussion. But passing for budget happens only after discussions and voting on demand for grants.

15.  Ans: D

Exp: Provisions related to Bill are:

Bills before a Select or Joint Committee

If a Bill is referred to a Select or a Joint Committee, it considers the Bill clause-by-clause just as the House does. Amendments can be moved to the various clauses by the members of the Committee. After the report of the Select or Joint Committee has been presented to the House, the member-in-charge of the Bill usually moves the motion for consideration of the Bill, as reported by the Select or Joint Committee, as the case may be.

A Money Bill or a Financial Bill containing any of the provisions calculated to make a Bill a Money Bill, however, cannot be referred to a Joint Committee of the Houses.

Constitution Amendment Bills

The Constitution vests in Parliament the power to amend the Constitution. Constitution Amendment Bills can be introduced in either House of Parliament. While motions for introduction of Constitution Amendment Bills are adopted by simple majority , a majority of the total membership of the House and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting is required for adoption of effective clauses and motions for consideration and passing of these Bills. Constitution Amendment Bills affecting vital issues as enlisted in the proviso to article 368(2) of the Constitution after having been passed by the Houses of Parliament, have also to be ratified by not less than one half of the State Legislatures.

Assent to the Bill

The President may either give or withhold his assent to a Money Bill. A Money Bill cannot be returned to the House by the President for reconsideration. Also, the President is bound to give his assent to Constitution Amendment Bill passed by Parliament by the prescribed special majority and, where necessary, ratified by the requisite number of State Legislatures.

16.  Ans: A

Exp: Seats shall be reserved for the SCs and STs in every Municipality not in all forms of Urban Government (which include Notified Area Committee, Cantonment Board, etc)

PESA is not a constitutional provision.

17.  Ans: B

Exp: Woods Despatch

  • It asked the Government of India to assume responsibility for education of the masses, thus repudiating the ‘downward filtration theory’, at least on paper.
    • It systematised the hierarchy from vernacular primary schools in villages at bottom, followed by Anglo-VernacularHigh Schools and an affiliated college at the district level, and affiliating universities in the presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
    • It recommended English as the medium of instruction for higher studies and vernaculars at school

level.

  • It laid stress on female and vocational, education, and on teachers’ training.
    • It laid down that the education imparted in government institutions should be secular.
    • It recommended a system of grants-in-aid to encourage private enterprise.

Hunter Education Commission recommended transfer of control of primary education to newly set up district and municipal boards.

18.  Ans:C

Exp: Vira Narsimha laid the foundation of the Tuluva dynasty in 1505. Vira Narasimha had the title of Bhujabala (1505-09). After his brief reign, he was succeeded by his younger brother Krishna Deva Raya (1509-30 A.D.) who was the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagar Empire. Under him, Vijayanagara emerged as the strongest military power in the south. He defeated the rebellious chiefs of Ummattur, the Gajapatis of Orissa and Sultan Adil Shah of Bijapur.

Krishna Deva Raya was also a great patron of art and literature, and was known as Andhra Bhoja. He was

the author of the Telugu work Amuktamalyada and one Sanskrit work Jambavati Kalyanam. His court was adorned by the Ashtadiggajas (the eight celebrated poets), of whom, Allasani Peddana was the greatest.

The Battle of Talikota (or Tellikota) (January 26, 1565) constituted a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan sultanates, resulting in a rout of Vijayanagara, ending the last great Hindu kingdom in South India.

19.  Ans: C

Exp: Thermal Battery Plant

World’s first-ever thermal battery plant was recently inaugurated in Andhra Pradesh.

It aims to create a new energy storage form with commercial applications, maintaining a low carbon footprint and less dependent on external factors like weather.

Conventional battery technology is based on the system of charging/discharging cycles that are driven by electricity. Eg. Lithium ion battery used in electronic devices.

Thermal batteries use thermal energy to operate, i.e. the energy created by temperature differences. The energy transfer in thermal batteries helps store heat when heat travels from one part of the battery

setup to the other.

Working of Thermal Battery – It consists of two parts such as a cool zone known as sink, and a hot source called source. When the sink of a thermal battery receives heat, it transforms physically or chemically, thereby storing energy, while the source cools down. During operation, the sink is cooled down, so it releases the stored energy, while the source heats up.

Applications – Electric vehicles, Telecom infrastructures, Power intensive industries.

20.  Ans: C

Exp: Single-crop agriculture: reduces crop-diversity, makes soil infertile and hence treat to biodiversity.

Ecotourism: it actually helps to protect biodiversity by making tourism eco-friendly.

Excess pumping of underground water tables: it leads to dessication (extreme drying) of soils and wetlands and hence a threat to biodiversity.

21.  Ans: D

Exp: TIGERNET is an official database of the NTCA which maintains real-time data related to Tiger mortality and seizures.

22.  Ans: C

Exp: As per the data from the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) it is the North Western India where water tables are lowest at below 40 meters while in Eastern India water tables are mostly within 5 meters.

Peninsular India is composed of harder rocks than the soft alluvial plains of Indo-Gangetic basin. It is easy for the rainwater to seep through the soft surface than the hard one.

The commonly observed contaminants include arsenic, fluoride, nitrate and iron. Other contaminants include bacteria, phosphates and heavy metals which are a result of human activities including domestic sewage, agricultural practices and industrial effluents.

23.  Ans: B

Exp: National Highways length is 1.15 lakh km; State Highways length is 1.76 lakh km.

At 1.70 km of roads per square kilometer of land, the quantitative density of India’s road network is higher than that of Japan (0.91) and the United States (0.98) to, and far higher than that of China (0.46), Brazil (0.18) or Russia (0.08) (2015-16 data)

24.  Ans:

Exp: Some provisions of the Constitution pertaining to citizenship, elections, provisional parliament,  temporary and transitional provisions, and short title contained in Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367,

379, 380, 388, 391, 392 and 393 came into force on November 26, 1949 itself.

The remaining provisions (the major part) of the Constitution came into force on January 26, 1950.

25.  Ans: B

Exp: 7th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1956 facilitated the appointment of the same person as a

governor for two or more states.

List of some governers been appointed for more than one states:

  • Andhra Pradesh and Telagana- E.S.L. Narsimhan.
    • Madhya Pradesh and Gujrat-Om Prakash Kohli.
    • Tamilnadu and Maharastra- Vidyasagar Rao.
    • Meghalya and Assam – Banwari Purohit.
    • Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh- Padmanbha Acharya.
    • Chandigarh and Punjab- V.P. Singh Badhore

The Constitution does not lay down any grounds upon which a governor may be removed by the President. The governor has no security of tenure and no fixed term of office, He may be removed by the President at any time. The Supreme Court held that the pleasure of the President is not justifiable

A governor holds office for a term of five years, however, this term of five years is subject to the pleasure of the President.

26.  Ans: A

Exp: Article 75 of the Constitution says that the council of ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. It means that the ministry stays in office so long as it enjoys confidence of the majority of the members of the Lok Sabha. In other words, the Lok Sabha can remove the ministry from office by passing a no-confidence motion. The motion needs the support of 50 members to be admitted.

Procedure

The procedure for moving a no-confidence motion is specified in Rule 198 of the Rules of Procedure and conduct of Lok Sabha. A Member of the House who wishes to pass a no-confidence motion has to submit a written notice to the Speaker before 10 am.

If 50 or more members accept the motion, the Speaker will set a date on which the motion would be discussed. The date allocated by the Speaker has to be within 10 days from the passing of the motion.

If the Speaker is unable to set a date for the discussion, the motion will fail and the member who moved it will have to be informed.

If the government fails to prove its majority in the House, they will resign with immediate effect.

27.  Ans: D

Exp: Functions of NITI Aayog

  • To evolve a shared vision of national development priorities sectors and strategies with the active involvement of States in the light of national objectives
    • To foster cooperative federalism through structured support initiatives and mechanisms with the States on a continuous basis, recognizing that strong States make a strong nation
    • To develop mechanisms to formulate credible plans at the village level and aggregate these

progressively at higher levels of government

  • To ensure, on areas that are specifically referred to it, that the interests of national security are

incorporated in economic strategy and policy

  • To pay special attention to the sections of our society that may be at risk of not benefiting adequately

from economic progress

  • To design strategic and long term policy and programme frameworks and initiatives, and monitor their progress and their efficacy. The lessons learnt through monitoring and feedback will be used for making innovative improvements, including necessary mid-course corrections
    • To provide advice and encourage partnerships between key stakeholders and national and international like-minded Think tanks, as well as educational and policy research institutions.
    • To create a knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurial support system through a collaborative community of national and international experts, practitioners and other partners.
    • To offer a platform for resolution of inter-sectoral and inter departmental issues in order to accelerate the implementation of the development agenda.
    • To maintain a state-of-the-art Resource Centre, be a repository of research on good governance and best practices in sustainable and equitable development as well as help their dissemination to stake- holders
    • To actively monitor and evaluate the implementation of programmes and initiatives, including the identification of the needed resources so as to strengthen the probability of success and scope of delivery.
    • To focus on technology upgradation and capacity building for implementation of programmes and initiatives
    • To undertake other activities as may be necessary in order to further the execution of the national development agenda, and the objectives mentioned above

28.  Ans: B

Exp: Wholesale Price Index (WPI)

Include whole prices of fixed basket of items, Broad Coverage: Covers all goods Agriculture, Industrial Intermediate, Consumer, Energy goods etc. Does not include services. Lesser weightage to food and maximum to manufactured items. It is published by Economic Advisor to Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

29.  Ans: A

Exp: Money is a medium of exchange having a legal tender by the Monetary Authority of a country. It has store value, intrinsic value, can be moved from one place to another, and comes at a cost of interest. The bearer of money has the obligation to pay the equivalent amount. Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in particular country.

30.  Ans: B

Exp: Project CHAMAN

  • CHAMAN carries out mapping of area and output of 7 horticultural crops in 12 states.
    • The Geo-Spatial Studies would be conducted in all major states of the country and remote sensing technology would be extended to other horticulture crops in future, giving a boost to horticulture in India.
    • It  can        help     horticulture                sector        provide        nutrient-rich        crops        to       the people   and  thus                    ensuring    food             and    nutritional security        to    all             people.
    • It creates a digital inventory of all horticultural zones in the country.
    • It can help in identifying areas of high Post-harvest losses which can be reduced by creation of desired Post Harvest Infrastructures like cold storages. It will help in deciding the cold storage hubs.
    • It will help manage inflation by providing accurate data of food stocks.
    • Crops Covered under CHAMAN
  • Fruits: Banana, Mango, Citrus
  • Vegetable: Potato, Onion and Tomato
  • Species: Chilli

31.  Ans: C

Exp: Fundamental duties

It shall be the duty of every citizen of India –

  • to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
  • to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
  • to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  • to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
  • to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  • to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  • to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
  • to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
  • to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
  • to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation

constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.

  • to provide opportunities for education by the parent the guardian, to his child, or a ward between the age of 6-14 years as the case may be.

32.  Ans: D

Exp: Battles

1st Battle of Tarain: The First Battle of Tarain (Taraori) was fought between Sultan Mohammad Ghori  and Prithviraj Chauhan in 1191 near the town of Tarain in Haryana. The army of Mohammed Ghori was defeated by the Rajput army of Chauhan.

2nd battle of Panipat: The Second battle of Panipat marked the beginning of Akbar’s reign in India, as it was in the first year of his holding the throne. The battle was fought between Akbar (Ruler of Mughal Dynasty) and Muhammad Adil Shah (ruler of Pashtan Suri Dynasty), along with his Prime Minister Hemu. The battle concluded with Mughals crowned with Victory.

Battle of Samugarh: was fought between Dara Shikoh and his two brothers Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh.

Battle of Karnal: The Battle of Karnal (24 February 1739), was a decisive victory for Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, during his invasion of the Mughal dynasty. Nader’s forces defeated the army of Muhammad Shah.

33.  Ans: A

In the Benaras Session of 1905, first time discussion on Swaraj took place.

The congress met in an atmosphere of anger and resentment in this session. Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh was elected but the extremists had an objection to this election. Initially the extremists dominated the session but soon they accepted Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh as president and offered to cooperate. But the session was suspended. Congress got split.

34.  Ans: C

Exp: Though Steppe type of climate supports grasslands but they are treeless. Savannah on the other hand is characterized by the scattered trees.

The grassland it supports are known as Steppes in Central Asia, Pustaz in Hungary, Pampas in Argentina, Veld in South Africa, Downs in Australia and Prairies in North America.

Grasslands are good for animal rearing which in turn support the beef industry.

35.  Ans: A

Exp: Statement 1 is correct because some plateaus formed as a result of geologic uplift e.g. Tibetan Plateau. Still others formed as a result of many lava flows that spread out over hundreds of thousands of square miles, building up the land surface e.g. Siberian Traps.

Statement 2 is incorrect because Deccan Plateau is formed due to both tectonic uplifts and basalt flows especially the north-western portions. (Refer G C Leong page 17)

36.  Ans: C

Exp: Data from the NASA’s Aquarius mission shows, as oceanographers have known for many years—but now can see—that Atlantic Ocean is saltier than the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Because the trade winds blow evaporated, salt-free water from the Atlantic to the Pacific, mostly at the Isthmus of Panama.

37.  Ans: B

Exp: It can create or abolish the state legislative councils (not assemblies) on the recommendation of the concerned state legislative assemblies.

38.  Ans: C

Exp: The Supreme Court is authorised to grant in its discretion special leave to appeal from any judgement in any matter passed by any court or tribunal in the country (except military tribunal and court martial). This provision contains the four aspects as under:

  • It is a discretionary power and hence, cannot be claimed as a matter of right.
    • It can be granted in any judgement whether final or interlocutory.
    • It may be related to any matter—constitutional, civil, criminal, income-tax, labour, revenue, advocates,

etc.

  • It can be granted against any court or tribunal and not necessarily against a high court (of course, except a military court).

39.  Ans: D

Exp: Types of Orbit are:

  • Geosynchronous orbit (GSO): Orbits once a day, but not necessarily in the same direction as the rotation of the Earth-not necessarily stationary.
    • Geostationary orbit (GEO): Orbits once as day and moves in the same direction as the Earth and the therefore appears stationary above the same point on the earth’s surface. Can only be above the Equator. Can only be above the Equator.

40.  Ans: C

Exp: Finland opens to the Baltic Sea which is part of the Atlantic Ocean.

Denmark opens to the Arctic Ocean through Greenland which is a part of the Denmark.

Iceland is opens to the Arctic Ocean on the northern coastline, while southern coastline is part of the Atlantic Ocean.

Norway coastline faces North Atlantic Ocean .

41.  Ans: C

Exp: Salary, allowances and pensions with respect of CAG are part of it.

42.  Ans: A

Exp: This scheme Adopt a Heritage: Apni Dharohar, Apni Pehchaan”, is a collaborative effort between the Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Culture and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), and State/UTs Governments. The Project aims to develop synergy among all partners to effectively promote “responsible tourism”.

It aims to involve public sector companies, private sector companies and corporate citizens/individuals to take up the responsibility for making our heritage and tourism more sustainable through development, operation and maintenance of world-class tourist infrastructure and amenities at ASI/ State heritage sites and other important tourist sites in India.

They would become ‘Monument Mitras’ through the innovative concept of “Vision Bidding”, where the agency with best vision for the heritage site will be given an opportunity to associate pride with their CSR activities.

The project primarily focuses on providing basic amenities that includes cleanliness, public

conveniences, drinking water, ease of access for differently abled and senior citizens, standardized signage, illumination and advanced amenities such as surveillance system, night viewing facilities, tourism facilitation center and an enhanced tourism experience that will result in more tourist footfalls, both domestic and foreign.

The priority areas of Programme are listed as under:

  • Developing basic tourism infrastructure;
    • Promoting cultural and heritage value of the country to generate livelihoods in the identified regions;
    • Enhancing        the         tourist         attractiveness        in         a        sustainable         manner                         by developing           world-class      infrastructure  at                  the                         heritage monument  sites;
    • Creating employment through active involvement of local communities;
    • Harnessing tourism potential for its effects in employment generation and economic development;
    • Developing sustainable tourism infrastructure and ensuring proper Operations and Maintenance therein.

43.  Ans: D

The Carnot Prize is the annual recognition by the US-based Kleinman Center for Energy Policy for distinguished contributions to energy policy through scholarship or practice.

The prize has been named after French scientist Sadi Carnot, who in 1824 published Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, which became the basis for the second law of thermodynamics. Carnot recognized that the power of the steam engine would “produce a great revolution” in human development.

The Carnot Prize is awarded to honour those who have revolutionized our understanding of energy policy. Carnot Prize is considered as one of the most prestigious awards in the energy sector. The prize, is given

annually.

Union Finance and Railways Minister Piyush Goyal has been awarded the 4th Carnot prize by Kleinman Center for Energy Policy at the University of Pennsylvania for his work in sustainable energy solutions and was felicitated today by a team from University of Pennsylvania who came to India.

44.  Ans: C

Exp: Species are:

Asiatic Lion: Only found in and around Gir Forest National Park of Gujarat.

Asiatic Wild Ass: Found only in Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat.

Bengal Tiger: Found primarily in India with smaller populations in Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar.

Lion Tailed Macaque: Endemic to the Western Ghats of South India.

Pygmy Hog: Found only in and around Manas National Park, Assam

45.  Ans: C Exp:

  • Ans: C
Designated Best Use Class of Water Criteria
Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfec- tion A Total colforms or- ganism MPN/100ml be 50 or lesspH between 6.5 and 8.5Dissolved Oxygen 6mg/l or moreBiochemical Oxy- gen Demand 5 days 20c 2mg/l or less

Exp: In India Oak is found only in the mountain regions with sub-tropical and temperate conditions. Teak, Sal and Rosewood are common to both moist and dry deciduous tropical forests.

47.  Ans: D

Exp: Barak is not the tributary of Brahmaputra.

In terms of length, Ganga is the longest river (within India). But when considering discharge (water-flow)

Brahmaputra is the largest.

Lohit is the tributary of Brahmaputra but it originates in Tibet.

48.  Ans: D

Exp: The objectives are:

  • Full Employment:- Full employment has been ranked among the foremost objectives of monetary

policy.

  • Price Stability:- One of the policy objectives of monetary policy is to stabilize the price level.
    • Economic Growth:- One of the policy objective of monetary policy in recent years has been the rapid

economic growth of an economy.

  • Balance of Payment:- Another objective of monetary policy since the 1950s has been to maintain equilibrium in the balance of payments.

49.  Ans: C

Exp: Types of Institutions are:

  • Financial institution
  • Export-Import bank of India
  • Small industries development bank of India (SIDBI)
  • National Housing Bank
  • Industrial Financial Corporation of India (IFCI)
  • Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI)
(b)         Specialized financial institution (SFIs)
  1. IFCI Venture Capital Funds Ltd.
  2. ICICI Venture Funds Ltd.
  3. Tourism Finance Corporation of India Ltd. (TFCI)

(c)          Investment institutions

  1. Life insurance Corporation of India (LIC)
  2. Unit Trust of India (UTI)
  • General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC)

50.  Ans: D

Exp: Components of Current A/C

  1. Export and import of Goods
  2. Export and import of Services
  3. Unilateral transfer from abroad
  4. Income receipts and payments to and from abroad

Components of Capital A/C

  1. Borrowing and leading to and from abroad
  2. Investments to and from abroad
  3. Change in Foreign Exchange Reserve